Advertisement

The Rationale for the Eastern European Radiofrequency and Microwave Protection Guides

  • Stanislaw Szmigielski
  • Tadeusz Obara

Abstract

The safety standards for environmental and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) being accepted and operating in Eastern European countries, members of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), and in the USSR follow since their establishment a different philosophy, as compared to the standards and rationales introduced in the USA and Western European countries.

Keywords

Occupational Exposure Safety Level Eastern European Country Safety Criterion Comecon Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adey, W. R., 1981, Ionic nonequilibrium phenomena in tissue interactions with electromagnetic fields, in: “Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation,” K. H. Illinger, ed., ACS Series 157, American Chemical Society, Washington.Google Scholar
  2. Akoev, I. G., 1986, Principles of biological risks and safety criteria of electromagnetic radiations, In: “Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Problems of Thei, Use and Safety,” I. G. Akoev, ed., USSR Academy of Sciences, Pushtshino (In Russian).Google Scholar
  3. Akoev, I. G., Alekseev, S. I., Tjazelov, W. W., and Formenko, B. S., 1986, Primary mechanisms of action of radiofrequency radiation, in: “Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Problems of Their Use and Safety,” I. G. Akoev, ed., USSR Academy of Sciences, Pushtshino (In Russian).Google Scholar
  4. Baranski, S. and Czerski, P., 1976, “Biological Effects of Microwave,” Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg).Google Scholar
  5. Byus, O. V., Lundak, R. L., Fletcher, R. M., and Adey, W. R., 1984, Alteration in protein kinase activity following exposure of cultured human lymphocytes to modulated microwave fields, Bioelectromagnetics. 5:341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Choy, R., Monro, J., and Smith, C., 1987, Electrical sensitivity in allergy patients, Clinical Ecology. 4: 93.Google Scholar
  7. Davidov, B. I., Tichonczuk, W. S., and Antipov, W. W., 1984, “Biological Action, Safety and Protection Against Elecctromagnetic Radiations,” Elektroatomizdat, Moscow (In Russian)).Google Scholar
  8. Elder, J.E., and Cahill, D. F., eds., 1984, “Biological Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation,”, EPA Report, 600/8-83-026F, USEPA, Research Triangle Park).Google Scholar
  9. Gordon, Z. A., 1974, “Biological effects of Extremely High Frequency Electromagnetic Fields,” Medicina, Moscow. (In Russian).Google Scholar
  10. Marino, A. A., 1988, Environmental electromagnetic fields and public health, in: “Modern Bioelectricity,” A. A. Marino, ed., M. Dekker Inc., New York and Basel.Google Scholar
  11. Mikolajczyk, A., 1987, “Experimental and medical investigations of effects caused by 1-100 kHz electromagnetic fields and guidelines fo, safety levels,” Final Report of the CILB Grant, Institute of Labour Protection, Lodz (In Polish)).Google Scholar
  12. Minin, B. A., 1974, “Ultra-High Frequencies and Human Safety,” Elektroatomizdat, Moscow (In Russian).Google Scholar
  13. Savin, B. M., Nikonova, K. W., Lobanova, E. A., Sadczikova, M. N., and Lobed, E. K., 1983, Novelties in Safety Standards of EM Radiation of the Microwave Range, Gigiena Truda. 3: 1 (In Russian)).Google Scholar
  14. Shandala, M. G., 1986, Methodologic problems of hygienic standardization of nonionizing electromagnetic radiations, in: “Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. Problems of Their Use and Safety,” I. G. Akoev, ed., USSR Academy of Sciences, Pushtshino (In Russian)).Google Scholar
  15. Szmigielski, S., Bielec, M., Lipski, S., and Sokolska, G., 1988, Immunologic and cancer-related aspects of exposure to low-level microwave and radiofrequency fields, in: “Modern Bioelectricity,” A. A. Marino, ed., M. Dekker Inc., New York and Basel.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stanislaw Szmigielski
    • 1
  • Tadeusz Obara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Effects of Non Ionizing RadiationCenter for Radiobiology and Radiation SafetyWarsawPoland

Personalised recommendations