Functional Diseases of the Esophagus

  • Joel E. Richter
Part of the Topics in Gastroenterology book series (TGEN)


Although recognized as early as the 17th century, functional disorders of the esophagus attracted only sporadic interest until the mid 20th century. The awareness that esophageal abnormalities are frequently found in patients with noncardiac chest pain has led to a resurgence of interest in esophageal motility disorders (EMDs). Improvement in manometric instrumentation as well as increased frequency of manometric evaluations in patients with noncardiac chest pain have provided more specific characterizations of EMDs. “New” disorders such as high-amplitude peristalsis (nutcracker esophagus) and hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES) have been defined and associated with chest pain syndromes and dysphagia. “Older” disorders such as achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasm have been further characterized and attempts made to correlate the motility disorders with symptomatic complaints of chest pain and dysphagia.


Esophageal Motility Esophageal Manometry Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure Pneumatic Dilatation Esophageal Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel E. Richter
    • 1
  1. 1.Section on Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, The Bowman Gray School of MedicineWake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA

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