Historical Perspectives of Functional Bowel Disease

  • Thomas P. Almy
Part of the Topics in Gastroenterology book series (TGEN)


A 31-year-old white housewife complained of persistent diarrhea for 18 months. Her stools were semiliquid to mushy, and often contained visible mucus but never blood. They were passed from three to eight times daily, but never at night; and though often accompanied by great urgency, they were usually small.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Enteric Nervous System Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patient Functional Disorder Emotional Conflict 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Powell R: On certain painful affections of the intestinal canal. Med Trans Coll Physicians 6: 106–117, 1820Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Clark A: Clinical illustrations of mucous disease of the colon from notes of various cases. Lancet 2: 614–615, 1859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    da Costa JM: Membranous enteritis. Am J Med Sci 62: 321–338, 1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    White WH: A study of 60 cases of membranous colitis. Lancet 2: 1229–1235, 1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Manning AP, Thompson WG, Heaton KW, et al: Towards positive diagnosis of the irritable bowel. Br Med J 2: 653–654, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kruis W, Thieme C, Weinzierl M, et al: A diagnostic score for the irritable bowel syndrome—its value in the exclusion of organic disease. Gastroenterology 87: 1–7, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Beaumont W: Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice, and the Physiology of Digestion. Plattsburg, FP Allen, 1833Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pavlov I: The Work of the Digestive Glands. English translation from the Russian by WH Thompson. London, C Griffin & Co, 1910Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wolf S, Wolff HG: Human Gastric Function. London, Oxford University Press, 1943Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Engel G, Reichsman F, Segal HL: A study of an infant with gastric fistula. Psychosom Med 18: 374–398, 1956PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abbot FK, Mack M, Wolf SG: The relation of sustained contraction of the duodenum to nausea and vomiting. Gastroenterology 20: 238–248, 1952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wolf S, Almy TP: Experimental observations on cardiospasm in man. Gastroenterology 13: 401–421, 1949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bockus HL, Bank J, Wilkinson SA: Neurogenic mucous colitis. Am J Med Sci 176: 813–829, 1928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alvarez WC: Nervous Indigestion. New York, Paul B Hoeber, 1930Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alexander F: Influence of psychologic factors upon gastrointestinal disturbances: Symposium, general principles, objectives, and preliminary results. Psychoanal Q 31: 501–539, 1934Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    White BV, Cobb S, Jones CM: Mucous colitis. Psychosom Med Monogr #1, 1939Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cannon WB: The movements of the intestines studied by means of the roentgen rays. Am J Physiol 6: 251–277, 1902Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lydiard RB, Laraia MT, Howell EF, et al: Can panic disorder present as irritable bowel syndrome? J Clin Psychiatry 47: 470–473, 1986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    White BV, Jones CM: The effect of irritants and drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system upon the mucosa of the normal rectum and rectosigmoid with special reference to “mucous colitis.” N Engl J Med 218: 791–797, 1938Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Friedman MHF, Snape WJ: Color changes in the mucosa of the colon in children as affected by food and psychic stimuli, Fed Proc 5: 30, 1946Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Almy TP, Tulin M: Alterations in colonic function in man under stress: Experimental production of changes simulating the “irritable colon.” Gastroenterology 8: 616–626, 1947Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Almy TP, Kern F, Tulin M: Alterations in colonic function in man under stress. II: Experimental production of sigmoid spasm in healthy persons. Gastroenterology 12: 425–436, 1949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Almy TP, Hinkle LE, Berle B: Alterations in colonic function in man under stress. III: Experimental production of sigmoid spasm in patients with spastic constipation. Gastroenterology 12: 437–449, 1949PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Almy TP, Abbot FK, Hinkle LE: Alterations in colonic function in man under stress. IV: Hypomotility of the sigmoid colon and its relationship to the mechanism of functional diarrhea. Gastroenterology 15: 95–105, 1950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Almy TP: Experimental studies on the “irritable colon.” Am J Med 10: 60–67, 1951Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Connell AM: The motility of the pelvic colon. II: Paradoxical motility in diarrhea and constipation. Gut 3: 342–348, 1962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Grace WJ, Wolf S, Wolff HG: The Human Colon. New York, Paul B. Hoeber, 1951Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chaudhary NA, Truelove SC: Human colonic motility: Comparative study of normal subjects, patients with ulcerative colitis, and patients with the irritable colon syndrome. III: Effects of emotions. Gastroenterology 40: 27–36, 1962Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wangel AG, Deller DJ: Intestinal motility in man. III: Mechanisms of constipation and diarrhea with particular reference to the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 48: 69–84, 1965PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chaudhary NA, Truelove SC: Human colonic motility: Comparative study of normal subjects, patients with ulcerative colitis, and patients with the irritable colon syndrome. II: The effect of prostigmine. Gastroenterology 40: 18–26, 1962Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kopel FB, Kim IC, Barbero GJ: Comparison of rectosigmoid motility in normal children, children with recurrent abdominal pain, and children with ulcerative colitis. Pediatrics 39: 539–545, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rubin LS, Barbero GJ, Sibinga MS: Pupillary reactivity in children with acute abdominal pain. Psychosom Med 29: 111–120, 1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Whitehead WE, Engel BT, Schuster MM: Irritable bowel syndrome: Physiological and psychological differences between diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant patients. Dig Dis Sci 25: 404–413, 1980PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Snape WJ Jr, Carlson GM, Cohen S: Colonic myoelectric activity in the irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 70: 326–330, 1976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Taylor I, Darby C, Hammond P: Comparison of rectosigmoid myoelectric activity in the irritable colon syndrome during relapses and remissions. Gut 19: 923–929, 1978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Latimer P, Sama S, Campbell D, et al: Colonic motor and myoelectrical activity: A comparative study of normal subjects, psychoneurotic patients and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 80: 893–901, 1981PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Welgan P, Meshkinpour H, Hoehler F: The effect of stress on colon motor and electrical activity in irritable bowel syndrome. Psychosom Med 47: 139–149, 1985PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kumar D, Wingate DL: The irritable bowel syndrome: A paroxysmal motor disorder. Lancet 2: 973–977, 1985PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Williams CL, Villar RG, Peterson JM, et al: Stress-induced changes in intestinal transit in the rat: A model for irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 94: 611–621, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lenz HJ, Burlage M, Raedler A, et al: Central nervous system effects of corticotropin-releasing factor on gastrointestinal transit in the rat. Gastroenterology 94: 598–602, 1988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Williams CL, Peterson JM, Villar RG, et al: Corticotropin-releasing factor directly mediates colonic responses to stress. Am J Physiol 253: G582–586, 1987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Almy TP: The irritable bowel syndrome: Back to square one? (editorial) Dig Dis Sci 25: 401–403, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thompson WG, Heaton KW: Functional bowel disorders in apparently healthy people. Gastroenterology 79: 283–288, 1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Drossman DA, Sandler RS, McKee DC, et al: Bowel patterns among subjects not seeking health care. Gastroenterology 83: 529–534, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Greenbaum DS, Abitz L, Van Egeren L, et al: Irritable bowel syndrome prevalence, rectosigmoid motility, and psychometrics in symptomatic patients not seeing physicians. Gastroenterology 84: 1174, 1983Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Whitehead WE, Winget C, Fedoravicius AS, et al: Learned illness behavior in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and peptic ulcer. Dig Dis Sci 27: 202–208, 1982PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lowman BC, Drossman DA, Cramer EM, et al: Recollection of childhood events in adults with irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Gastroenterol 9: 324–330, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Welch GW, Hillman LC, Pomare EW: Psychoneurotic symptomatology in the irritable bowel syndrome: A study of reporters and non-reporters. Br Med J 291: 1382–1383, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wood JD: Enteric neurophysiology. Am J Physiol 247: 585–597, 1984Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Whorwell PJ, Prior A, Colgan SM: Hypnotherapy in severe irritable bowel syndrome: Further experience. Gut 28: 423–425, 1987PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rask-Madsen J, Bukhave K: The irritable bowel syndrome: The role of intestinal secretion, in Read NW (ed): Irritable Bowel Syndrome. New York, Grune & Stratton, 1985, pp 111–122Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bienenstock J, Perdue M, Stanisz A, et al: Neurohormonal regulation of gastroinestinal immunity. (editorial) Gastroenterology 93: 1431–1434, 1987Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wolf S: The Stomach. London, Oxford University Press, 1965, pp 118–119Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas P. Almy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Community and Family MedicineDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA

Personalised recommendations