Neurotrophic Effects and Mechanism of Insulin, Insulin-Like Growth Factors, and Nerve Growth Factor in Spinal Cord and Peripheral Neurons
Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are members of a gene family (Blundell and Humbel, 1980; Jansen et al., 1983; Dull et al., 1984; Bell et al., 1985; Soares et al., 1985). Their sites of synthesis, tissue distribution, and effects including those on feeding behavior, electrical activity, neuromodulation, and metabolism, and other data, lend strong support to the conviction that insulin homologs have important functions on the nervous system (reviewed in Recio-Pinto and Ishii, 1988a). Their neurotrophic properties, which were initially observed in cultured cells originating from the peripheral nervous system, support the hypothesis that these factors play roles in the development and maintenance of the circuitry and function of the nervous system (Recio-Pinto and Ishii, 1984; Recio-Pinto et al., 1986). Additional support for this hypothesis is obtained from studies which now show the effects of these factors on cells from the central nervous system, and the novel observation that the IGF-II gene is expressed in muscle during development and denervation in a manner correlated with synaptogenesis.
KeywordsPC12 Cell Nerve Growth Factor Neurite Outgrowth Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Neurite Formation
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