IGFs in Pregnancy: Developmental Expression in Uterus and Mammary Gland and Paracrine Actions during Embryonic and Neonatal Growth

  • Frank A. Simmen
  • Rosalia C. M. Simmen
  • L. Roxanne Letcher
  • Douglas A. Schober
  • Yong Ko


The insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I, IGF-II) are structural homologs of insulin that are mitogenic in vivo and in vitro 1. These peptides are also characterized by other actions which include the ability to alter the differentiation state of target cells by affecting specific aspects of messenger RNA (mRNA) production, protein synthesis and protein secretion. The IGF peptides are synthesized in multiple organ systems by a process that is subject to hormonal, developmental and tissue-specific regulation. The molecular mechanisms underlying the complex regulation of IGF biosynthesis remain for the most part obscure.


Growth Hormone Mammary Gland Uterine Lumen Neonatal Growth Early Postnatal Growth 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank A. Simmen
    • 1
  • Rosalia C. M. Simmen
    • 1
  • L. Roxanne Letcher
    • 1
  • Douglas A. Schober
    • 1
  • Yong Ko
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal Science and Laboratories of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development CenterThe Ohio State UniversityWoosterUSA

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