An Ultrastructural Analysis of Spruce Budworm-Promoted Defoliation in Abies Balsamea

  • B. A. Oyofo
  • Dan Schmitt
  • Gerald C. Llewellyn
  • William V. Dashek
  • John E. Mayfield


Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), a transcontinental gymnosperm, is of economic importance for lumber and wood pulp. Forest managers are continually faced with demands to increase wood yield. The problem is exacerbated in the case of balsam fir since spruce budworm periodically severely depletes the available wood inventory.


Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Leaf Primordia Apical Dome Barley Aleurone Cell Large Starch Granule 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Oyofo
    • 1
  • Dan Schmitt
    • 2
  • Gerald C. Llewellyn
    • 3
  • William V. Dashek
    • 4
  • John E. Mayfield
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of BiologyAtlanta UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment StationU.S. Department of AgricultureBroomallUSA
  3. 3.Bureau of Toxic SubstancesVirginia Department of HealthRichmondUSA
  4. 4.Department of BiologyAtlanta UniversityAtlantaUSA
  5. 5.Department of BiologyNorth Carolina Central UniversityDurhamUSA

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