Ultrastructure and Amino Acid/Protein Contents of Pinus Strobus Needles: A Potential Monitor for Ozone (O3)

  • Randolph W. Taylor
  • Arthur L. Williams
  • William V. Dashek
  • Wayne T. Swank


A variety of pine species, including eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.), are a significant resource in the Southern USA (Dorman, 1976). Ambient levels of ozone beyond the Earth’s background of 0.02 to 0.03 ppm are suspected to adversely affect the quality and growth of various pines (Berry, 1974). Consequently, visible symptoms of ozone damage can appear on eastern white pine below 10 pphm (Taylor, 1984) which is generally regarded as ozone-sensitive (Berry, 1971). Representative average monthly and mean hourly ozone concentrations are shown in Figures 1A and 1B, respectively, for the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory which is located in western North Carolina within the southern Appalachian Mountains. The 2200-ha Laboratory is in a rural county and the ozone monitoring station is located at low elevation (685 m). General ozone concentrations for 1986 were lower than concentrations experienced in 1987 and 1988, but are useful to characterize seasonal and diurnal trends. Concentrations are typically highest in spring and early summer months (May-June) and subsequently decrease through the summer into fall (Figure 1A). High concentrations coincide with the initiation and development of new foliage which is a period when forest trees may be most susceptible to oxidant damage.


Guard Cell Ozone Concentration Starch Granule Propylene Oxide Stomatal Aperture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Berry, C.R. (1971). Relative sensitivity of red, jack and white pine seedlings to ozone and sulfur dioxide. Phytopathol. 61, 231–232.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, C.R. (1974). Age of pine seedlings with primary needles affects sensitivity to ozone and sulfur dioxide. Phytopathol. 64, 207–209.Google Scholar
  3. Dashek, W.V. and S.S. Erickson. (1981). Isolation, assay, biosynthesis, metabolism, uptake and translocation and functions of proline in plant cells and tissues. The Botanical Review 47, 340–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dorman, K.W. (1976). The genetics and breeding of Southern Pines. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, pp. 1–2. Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  5. Durzan, D.J. and P.K. Ramiah. (1971). The metabolism of L-proline by jack pine seedlings. Can. J. Bot., 49, 2163–2173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Freudenrich, C.C. and W.V. Dashek. (1983). Hydroxyproline and proline inhibit alpha-amylase activities of isolated barley, aleurone layers. Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 52, 253–263.Google Scholar
  7. Heilman, J., J. Barrollier and E. Watzke. (1957). Beitrag Zur Amino saurebestimming auf papier chromatogrammen. Z. Physiol. Chem., 309, 1–12.Google Scholar
  8. Levitt, J. (1974). Introduction to Plant Physiology. C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis, Mo.Google Scholar
  9. Newton, R.J., S. Sen and J.D. Puryear. (1986). Free proline changes in Pinus taeda L. callus in response to drought stress. Tree Physiology 1, 325–332.Google Scholar
  10. Reynolds, E.S. (1963). The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron opaque stain in electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 17, 208–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sabatini, D.D., K. Bensch and R.J. Barnett. (1963). Cytochemistry and electron microscopy. J. Cell Biol., 17, 19–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Spurr, A.W. (1969). A low viscosity epoxy embedding medium for electron microscopy. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 26, 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Stewart, C.R. (1972). Proline content and metabolism during rehydration of wilted excised leaves in the dark. Plant Physiol. 50, 679–681.Google Scholar
  14. Taylor, 0.C. (1984). Organismal responses of higher plants to atmospheric pollutants: Photochemical and other. In: Air Pollution and Plant Life, p. 215–223. (M. Treshow, ed.) John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Tomlinson, H. and S. Rich. (1971). Effect of ozone on sterols and sterol derivatives in bean leaves. Phytopathol. 61, 1404–1405.Google Scholar
  16. Troll, W. and J. Lindsley. (1955). A photometric method for the determination of proline. J. Biol. Chem., 215, 655–660.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randolph W. Taylor
    • 1
  • Arthur L. Williams
    • 1
  • William V. Dashek
    • 1
  • Wayne T. Swank
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyAtlanta UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Forest Service — Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Coweeta Hydrologic LaboratoryUSDAOttoUSA

Personalised recommendations