The Long Term Effect of Vapona on Textiles: Preliminary Findings

  • Nancy Kerr
  • Sharon Hammick


The protection of textile collections from insects in museums and historic buildings is a challenge for museum personnel. Numerous insecticides which were formerly used in museums have been withdrawn from the market place. Attention is now focused on dichlorvos, one of the few remaining organophosphate insecticides accepted as a biocide for museum use. Dichlorvos or DDVP (0,0-dimethyl-2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate) is dispersed in polyvinyl chloride resin to form a slow release pest strip such as Vapona®, No-pest Strip® or S.W.A.T.® Due to its effectiveness as a broad spectrum insecticide (Attfield et al., 1966), dichlorvos is used in museums throughout the world. At the UNESCO conference, Conservation of Cultural Materials in Humid Climates, held in Australia in 1979, conservators proposed that museums in the Cook Islands, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, New Zealand and other Pacific Rim countries use Vapona® pest strips to control insects (UNESCO, 1979). Dichlorvos is reported to be used in museums in India. Britain (Stansfield, 1985), Europe and North America (Edwards et al., 1981).


Wool Fiber Peracetic Acid Wool Textile Textile Collection Shrinkage Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, C.A. (1971). Chlorine treatment and resin application. Appl. Polym. Symp., 18, 715–726.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, C.A. (1983). Mechanisms of raw wool scouring–The role of the protein contaminant layer. Textile Res J., 53, 741–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 7.01 (1986). American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 395–404.Google Scholar
  4. Attfield, J.G., & Webster, D.A. (1966). Dichlorvos. Chemistry and Industry, Feb. 12, 272–278.Google Scholar
  5. Bateup, B.O. (1984). Relationship between the whiteness of scoured wool and the level of residual nitrogen-containing contaminant. Textile Res. J., 54, 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coderch, M.L., Erra, P., Julia, M.R., Infante, M.R., and Garcia, J. (1985). Analysis of some morphological components extracted from wool submitted to shrink-test treatments. In: Proc. 7th Intern. Wool Textile Res. Conf. Tokyo, Vol. IV, pp. 252–261 ( M. Sakamoto, ed.), Nichiei Kosen, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  7. Decker, C. (1976). Oxidative degradation of Poly(vinyl Chloride). J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 20, 3321–3336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Edwards, S.R., Bell, B.M., and King, M.E. (1981). Pest Control in Museums: A Status Report (1980). Association of Systematics Collections, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Eto, M. (1974). Organophosphorus Pesticides: Organic and Biological Chemistry. CRC Press, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  10. Gillet, J.W., Harr, J.R., Lindstrom, F.T., Mount, D.A., St. Clair, A.D., and Weber, L.J. (1972). Evaluation of human health hazards on use of dichlorvos (DDVP), especially in resin strips. In: Residue Rev., 44, pp. 115–160 ( F.A. Gunther, & J.D. Gunther, eds.), Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Hammick, J.S. (1989). Effect of Dichlorvos Resin Strips on Wool Fibers, unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2M8.Google Scholar
  12. Holt, L.A., and Milligan, B. (1970). The esterification of wool. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 23, 165–173.Google Scholar
  13. Leeder, J.D., Rippon, J.A., and Rivett, D.E. (1985). Modification of the surface properties of wool by treatment with anhydrous alkali. In: Proc. 7th Intern. Wool Textile Res. Conf. Tokyo, Vol. IV, pp. 312–321, ( M. Sakamoto, ed.), Nichiei Kosen, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  14. Leeder, J.D. (1986). The cell membrane complex and its influence on the properties of the wool fibre. Wool Sci. Rev., 63, pp. 3–35.Google Scholar
  15. Lewis, R.H. (1976). Manual for Museums, National Park Service, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  16. Mason, P. (1962). Thermal transitions in keratin. Textile Res. J. 35, 483–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MacLaren, J.A., and Milligan, B. (1981). Wool Science: The Chemical Reactivity of the Wool Fibre. Science Press, CSIRO, Australia.Google Scholar
  18. Nakamoto, N. (1984). Insecticidal effect of a smoking agent (DDVP) on dermestid beetles and its influence on the quality of raw silk. Kiito Kensa Kenkya Hokoku, 38, 75–83.Google Scholar
  19. Reagan, B.M. (1984). Effect of insecticides on the colorfastness of acid and disperse dyes on nylon and polyester. Text. Chem. Color., 16, 25–37.Google Scholar
  20. Robson, R.M. (1985). Silk: Composition, structure, and properties. In: Handbook of Fiber Science and Technology (IV): Fiber Chemistry, PP. 648–693 ( M. Lewin and E.M. Pearce, eds.), M. Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  21. Segal, L. and Wakelyn, P.J. (1985). Cotton Fibers. In: Handbook of Fiber Science and Technology (IV): Fiber Chemistry, pp. 810–903 ( M. Lewin and E.M. Pearce, eds.), M. Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Speakman, J.B. and Hirst, M.C. (1933). The constitution of the keratin molecule. Trans. Faraday Soc., 29, 148–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Spivak, S.M., Wood, F.E. and Worth, J. (1981). Assessing the effects of pesticidal chemicals on historic textiles. In: Preservation of Paper and Textiles of Historic and Artistic Value II. pp. 333–343 (W.E. Williams, ed.), ACS Adv. Chem. Ser. 193, Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, DC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stansfield, G. (1985). Pest control: A collection management problem. Mus. J., 85, 97–99.Google Scholar
  25. Szilard, J.A. (1973). Bleaching Agents and Techniques. Noyes Data, London.Google Scholar
  26. Technical Manual of the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (1988), AATCC, Research Triangle Park, 271–276.Google Scholar
  27. UNESCO (1979). Recommendations of the Pacific Regional Conservation Centre. The Conservation of Cultural Materials in Humid Climates, UNESCO Regional Seminar, February, 1979. Canberra College, Australia.Google Scholar
  28. Umehara, R., Shibata, Y., Masuda, Y., Ito, H., Miyamoto, T., and Inagaki, H. (1988). Role of nonkeratinous protein in crimp formation of wool fibers by draft and immediate relaxation. Textile Res. J., 58, 22–26.Google Scholar
  29. Vigo, T.L. (1980). Protection of textiles from biodeterioration. In: Conservation and Restoration of Textiles, International Conference, Como, Italy, pp. 18–26 (F. Pertegato, ed.), Milan, Italy.Google Scholar
  30. Williams, S.L., Hawks, C.A. and Weber, S.G. (1986). Considerations in the use of DDVP resin strips for insect pest control in biological research collections. In: Biodeterioration 6th, pp. 344–350 ( S. Barry, D.R. Houghon, C.G. Llewellyn and C.E. O’Rear, eds.), International Mycology Institute, London.Google Scholar
  31. Young, G. (1986). Personal communication. Canadian Conservation Institute, Ottawa, Ontario.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nancy Kerr
    • 1
  • Sharon Hammick
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Clothing and Textiles, Faculty of Home EconomicsUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

Personalised recommendations