The Evolutionary Origin of Glycosomes: How Glycolysis Moved from Cytosol to Organelle in Evolution
One of the most remarkable forms of biochemical tinkering in evolution, is the movement of biochemical pathways from one cellular compartment to another. A striking example is provided by glycolysis, one of the most invariant and conserved biochemical pathways in nature. Textbooks state that this pathway is found in the cytosol in all eukaryotes, but in 1977 trypanosomes were found to be the exception to this rule (1,2). As shown in Fig. 1, glycolysis down to 3-P-glycerate is located in a peroxisome-like organelle, the glycosome, and only the last two steps, the conversion of 3-P-glycerate into pyruvate, occur in the cytosol. There is no doubt that this organization of glycolysis is eminently sensible: bloodstream trypanosomes rely entirely on glycolysis for ATP production. The segregation of the pathway in an organelle which takes up 4% of the trypanosome volume will reduce diffusion times of substrates and should allow a faster rate of glycolysis than would be possible if substrates and enzymes were freely distributed over the entire cytosol. Indeed, trypanosomes have by far the highest rate of glycolysis in nature.
KeywordsGlycolytic Enzyme Trypanosoma Brucei Peroxisomal Protein Peroxisomal Target Signal Cell BioI
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