Gender and Justice

The Equal Protection Issue
  • Nicole Hahn Rafter
Part of the Law, Society and Policy book series (LSPO, volume 4)


In meting out punishments for crimes, our society defines justice in terms of both proportionality—the fit between offense and consequence—and equal treatment, the imposition of penalties without regard for such personal characteristics as gender, race, or social class. This chapter is concerned with justice in the second sense. It focuses on the gap between the ideal of equal treatment and the reality that prisons punish inmates differently on the basis of gender.


Prison System Female Offender State Prison Equal Protection Female Prisoner 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Hahn Rafter
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Criminal JusticeNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA

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