Advertisement

Psychosocial Risk Trajectories and Beneficial Turning Points

  • Michael Rutter
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 161)

Summary

Serious psychosocial adversities in early life may be followed by lasting sequelae or by recovery. Some of the reasons for both persistence and resilience are considered in relation to multiple lasting social disadvantage, rearing by a mentally ill parent, family discord and poor parenting, and an upbringing in an institutional environment. In part the persistence of ill effects is a function of direct and indirect continuities in environmental risk and in part it is the result of changes in the individual. Such changes may come about through the effects of the child’s disturbed behavior on other people and through changes in self-concept and vulnerability to stress. The non-persistence of ill effects may be determined in part by the extent of the initial risk and by the qualities of the individual. However, it is also a consequence of personal turning points in people’s lives when decisions or opportunities may result in a risk trajectory altering in direction onto a more adaptive path. Such turning points are considered in relation to schooling, marriage, army experience, and the process of coping successfully with stress and adversity.

Keywords

Personality Disorder Adult Life Conduct Disorder Psychosocial Risk Factor Child Psychol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    M. Rutter. Maternal Deprivation Reassessed. ( Second Edition ). Penguin Books, Harmondsworth (1981).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Rutter. Family and school influences on behavioral development. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 26: 349–368 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Rutter and N. Madge. Cycles of Disadvantages. Heinemann, London (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. Kolvin, F.J.W. Miller, M. Fleeting and P.A.K. Kolvin. Risk/protective factors for offending with particular reference to deprivation. In Studies of Psychosocial Risk: The Power of Longitudinal Data. M. Rutter (ed.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (in press).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    D. Quinton, M. Rutter and L. Gulliver. The social functioning in early adulthood of the children of psychiatric patients. In Straight and Devious Pathways from Childhood to Adulthood. L.N. Robins and M. Rutter (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Rutter and D. Quinton. Parental psychiatric disorder: effects on children. Psychol. Med. 14: 853–800 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Rutter and D. Quinton. Parental mental illness as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in childhood. In Psychopathology in the Perspective of Person-Environment Interaction. D. Magnusson and A. Ohmar (eds.). Academic Press, London (1987).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Rutter. Parental mental disorder as a psychiatric risk factor. In American Psychiatric Association’s Annual Review, Volume 6. R.E. Hales and A.J. Frances (eds.) American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC (1987).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Parker. Parental Overprotection: A Risk Factor in Psychosocial Development. Grune and Stratton, New York (1982).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.W. Brown, T.O. Harris and A. Bifulco, The long term effects of early loss of parent. In Depression in Young People: Clinical and Developmental Perspectives. M. Rutter, C.E. Izard and P.B. Read (eds.) Guilford Press, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Rutter. Intergenerational continuities and discontinuities in serious parenting difficulties. In Research on the Consequences of Child Maltreatment. D. Ciochettic and V. Carlsor (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Quinton and M. Rutter. Parenting Breakdown: The Making and Breaking of Intergenerational Links. Gower Publishing, Aldershot (1988).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Richman, J. Stevenson and P. Graham. Preschool to School: A Behavioral Study. Academic Press, London(1982).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. Hodges and B. Tizard. IQ and behavioral adjustment of ex-institutional adolescents. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry (in press).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Hodges and B. Tizard. Social and family relationships of ex-institutional adolescents. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry (in press).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L.N. Robins. Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behavior Replications from longitudinal studies. Psychol. Med. 8: 611–622 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.N. Robins. The consequences of conduct disorder in girls. In Development of Antisocial and Prosocial Behavior: Research, Theories and Issues. D. Olweus, J. Block and M. Radke-Yarrow (eds.) Academic Press, New York (1986).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Rutter, D. Quinton and J. Hill. The effects of an institutional rearing on social functioning in early adult life in men and women. In Straight and Devious Pathways from Childhood to Adulthood. L.N. Robins and M. Rutter (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (in press).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Zoccolillo, M. Rutter, D. Quinton and A. Pickles. The outcome of conduct disorder: implications for defining adult personality disorders. (in preparation).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    G.R. Patterson. Coercive Family Process. Castalia, Eugene (1982).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.A. Brunk and S.W. Henggeler. Child influences on adult controls: an experimental investigation. Dev. Psychol. 20: 1074–1081 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    K.A. Dodge. Behavioral antecedents of peer social status. Child Dev. 54: 1386–1399 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    M. Rutter and H. Giller. Juvenile Delinquency: Trends and Perspectives. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth (1983).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    S. Scarr and K. McCartney. How people make their own environments: a theory of genotype-environmental effects. Child Dev. 54: 424–435 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Maughan, G. Gray and M. Rutter. Reading retardation and antisocial behavior: a follow-up into employment. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 26: 741–758 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M. Rutter. Temperament, personality and personality disorder. Br. J. Psychiatry. 150: 443–458 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J.G. Parker and S.R. Asher. Peer relations and later personal adjustment: are low-accepted children ‘at risk’? Psych. Bull. (in press).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    S. Harter. Developmental perspectives on the self-system. In Socialization, Personality and Social Development. Volume 4. Mussen’s Handbook of Child Psychology. E.M. Hetherington (ed.) Wiley, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Rutter. The role of cognition in child development and disorder. Br. J. Med. Psychol. 60: 1–16 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. Rutter. Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In Primary Prevention of Psychopathology: Volume 3: Social Competence in Children. M.W. Kent and J.E. Rolf (eds.) University Press of New England, Hanover (1979).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    G.H. Elder. Children of the Great Depression. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1974).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    G.H. Elder. Historical change in life patterns and personality. In Life Span Development and Behavior. P. Baltes and O.C. Brim (eds.) Academic Press, New York (1979).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    D. Quinton and M. Rutter. Early hospital admissions and later disturbances of behavior: an attempted replication of Douglas’s findings. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 18: 447–459 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Rutter. Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology. J. Rolf, A. Masten, D. Ciochetti, K. Neuchterlein and S. Weintraub (eds.) Cambridge University Press, New York (in press).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    R.J. Cadoret. Genes, environment and their interaction in the development of psychopathology. In Genetic Aspects of Human Behavior. T. Sakai and T. Tsuboi (eds.) Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo (1985).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R.J. Cadoret, E. Troughton, K. Moreno and A. Whitters. Early life psychosocial events and adult affective symptoms. In Straight and Devious Pathways from Childhood to Adulthood. L.N. Robins and M. Rutter (eds.) Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (in press).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    B. Maughan, G. Dunn and M. Rutter. Black pupils’ progress in secondary school: 1. Reading attainment between 10 and 14. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 3: 113–121 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    B. Maughan and M. Rutter. Black Pupils’ progress in secondary schools: II. Examination attainments. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 4: 19–29 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    D.J. West. Delinquency: Its Roots, Careers and Prospects. Heinemann Educational, London; Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass (1982).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    G.W. Brown and T. Harris. Social Origins of Depression. Tavistock, London (1978).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. Parker and D. Hadzi-Pavlovic. Modification of levels of depression in mother-bereaved women by parental and marital relationships. Psychol. Med. 14: 125–135 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    G.H. Elder. Military times and turning points in men’s lives. Dev. Psychol. 22: 233–245 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Rutter. Stress, coping and development: Some issues and some questions. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 2: 323–356 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    E.M. Hetherington. Parent and children and siblings: 6 years after divorce. In Relationships with Families: Mutual Influences. R.A. Hinde and J. Stevenson-Hinde (eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford (in press).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    D.S. Pelligrini. Training in social problem solving. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches. (Second Edition). Blackwell Scientific, Oxford (1985).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Rutter
    • 1
  1. 1.MRC Child Psychiatry Unit Institute of PsychiatryLondonUK

Personalised recommendations