Advertisement

Methods for Assessing the Risk of Environmental Contamination

  • C. L. van Deelen
Part of the NATO · Challenges of Modern Society book series (NATS, volume 12)

Abstract

Industrialization has resulted in the increased use of a wide variety of chemicals. Contamination of the environment may occur at any stage of the life cycle of a chemical, i.e. during manufacturing, storage, use and disposal. After release a chemical will initially be transported within the environmental compartment in which the emission occurs. Depending on its basic properties a released chemical generally will be transformed to a certain extent as a result of physical, chemical and/or biological processes. Moreover, in most cases the chemical will enter other environmental compartments, resulting in subsequent transport and transformation. Regarding the environmental compartments a distinction can be made between abiotic compartments such as air, (ground)water and soil and biotic compartments, e.g. human beings, flora and fauna.

Keywords

Soil Contamination Health Risk Assessment Cathodic Protection Environmental Compartment Public Water Supply 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Crump, K.S., 1985a, Mechanisms Leading to Dose-Response Models, in: “Principles of Health Risk Assessment”, P.F. Ricci, ed., Prentice- Hall/Englewood Cliffs, New Jersy.Google Scholar
  2. Crump, K.S., 1985b, Interspecies Comparison for Carcinogenic Potency to Humans; in: “Principles of Health Risk Assessment”, P.F. Ricci, ed., Prentice-Hall/Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  3. Deelen, C.L. van, and Golbach, G., 1986, “Programming Note on Environmental Risks” (in Dutch), TNO report 86-070.Google Scholar
  4. Deelen, C.L. van, 1986, Assessing the risk of soil contamination in the case of industrial activities, in: “Contaminated Soil”, J.W. Assink, and W.J. van den Brink, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  5. Deelen C.L. van, 1987, “A procedure for assessing the risk of soil contamination by industrial activities” (in Dutch); to be issued by the Government Publishing Office, the Hague.Google Scholar
  6. Directorate-General of Labour (DGA), 1979, “Hazard and Operability Study. Why? When? How?”, Report of the Directorate-General of Labour, 1st edition.Google Scholar
  7. Fiksel, J.R., and Scow, K.M., 1983, Human Exposure and Health Risk Assessment Using Outputs of Environmental Fate Models, in: “Fate of Chemicals in the Environment”, R.L. Swann, and A. Eschenroeder, eds., ACS Symposium Series 225.Google Scholar
  8. Mackay, D., 1979, Finding Fugacity Feasible, Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 1218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mackay, D., Paterson, S. and Joy, M., 1983, Application of Fugacity Models to the Estimation of Chemical Distribution and Persistence in the Environment, in: “Fate of Chemicals in the Environment”, R.L. Swann and A. Eschenroeder, eds., ACS Symposium Series 225.Google Scholar
  10. Morris, S.C., 1987, Dose-Response Curves for Acute and Chronic Exposure and Response to Chemical and Physical Agents, Paper Prepared for the Workshop for the Presentation of Guidelines for the Joint IAEA/UNEP/ WHO Project on “Assessing and Managing Health and Environmental Risks from Energy and Other Complex Industrial Systems”, held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, June 29–July 2, 1987.Google Scholar
  11. Pietersen, C.M., and van Deelen, C.L., 1985, “Comparative risk analysis of underground storage systems at (car)filling stations” (in Dutch). “Bodembeschermingsreeks” no. 45. Government Publishing Office, the Hague.Google Scholar
  12. Ricci, P.F.(ed.), 1985, “Principles of Health Risk Assessment”, Prentice-Hall/Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  13. Swann, R.L., and Eschenroeder A. (eds.), 1983, “Fate of Chemicals in the Environment”, ACS Symposium Series 225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. VROM, 1980, “Handbook of Emission Factors, Part 1 — Non-industrial sources”, Government Publishing Office, the Hague.Google Scholar
  15. VROM, 1984a, “Handbook of Emission Factors, Part 2 — Industrial Sources”, Government Publishing Office, the Hague.Google Scholar
  16. VROM, 1984b, Provisional indicative soil program for 1984–1988 (in Dutch).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. L. van Deelen
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Technology for Society, Department of Industrial SafetyTNO, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific ResearchApeldoornthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations