Quantification of Health Risk Due to Chemicals: Methods and Uncertainties
As will be recalled from the previous chapter, quantification of the risk to human health caused by chemicals involves two separate tasks (see Figure 1.1). First, an assessment has to be made of the extent to which the population is exposed to the chemical considered. Second, the connection between the exposure level (dose rate and duration of exposure) and the probability of adverse health effects must be established. Before these two steps are begun, however, a hazard assessment is normally performed. That is, tests are conducted to determine whether or not the chemical poses a risk to human health or the environment. If the results of these tests show that the chemical is nontoxic or has an extremely small chance of getting in contact with the surroundings, a full risk assessment like that displayed in Figure 1.1 is unnecessary.
KeywordsAdverse Health Effect Exposure Assessment Uncertain Parameter Ames Test Angina Attack
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aune, T., 1982, “Health Effects from Air Pollution in Oslo” (in Norwegian), The Norwegian State Pollution Control Authority, Oslo, Report No. 4l.Google Scholar
- Campbell, G.L., Cohan, D., and North, D.W., 1982, “The Application of Decision Analysis to Toxic Substances: Proposed Methodology and Two Case Studies,” Economics and Technology Division, Office of Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C.Google Scholar
- Day, N.F., and Brown, C.C., 1980, Multistage models and primary prevention of cancer, J. Nat. Cancer Inst., 64: 977.Google Scholar
- Lewtas, J., 1986, A quantitative cancer risk assessment methodology using short-term genetic bioassays: the comparative potency method, in: “Risk and Reason: Risk Assessment in Relation to Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens,” P. Oftedal and A. Brøgger, eds., Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
- Morgan, M.G., 1983, “The Role of Decision Analysis in the Implementation of Environmental Policies,” OECD, Geneva, ENV/CHEM/CH/83.5, Annex.Google Scholar
- Resnick, M.A., 1987, “Evaluation of Short-Term Tests of Genotoxicity,” paper presented at the International Conference on Structure. Activity Relationships (SAR) for Toxicological Estimation of Chemicals, Pisa, Italy, May 1987.Google Scholar
- Sievering, H., and Roberts, H.A., 1982, “Risk Assessment for Environmental Management: A Case Study of Fuel Switching at Illinois Power Plants,” Illinois Department of Energy and National Resources, Springfield, Illinois, Document No. 82 /14.Google Scholar
- United Nations, 1984, “Air-borne Sulphur Pollution: Effects and Control”, Economic Commission for Europe, United Nations, New York, Sales no. E.84.U.E. 8.Google Scholar