Routing of Axons at the Optic Chiasm

Ipsilateral Projections and Their Development
  • Sally G. Hoskins
Part of the Perspectives in Vision Research book series (PIVR)


The central mystery of brain development is how the precise point-to-point connectivity of billions of neurons is achieved. An important aspect of this problem concerns the pathfinding behavior of axons: What determines the branch taken at each fork of a pathway? In the developing visual system, retinal ganglion cell axons from the two eyes intersect below the diencephalon, forming the optic chiasm. Here some axons continue in the same direction to innervate the opposite side of the brain, while others turn to innervate the same side, making the chiasm a major trajectory choice point. Throughout the developing nervous system, growing axons are confronted with a series of such choice points as they move toward and synapse with specific targets. The rules governing such choices are poorly understood. Understanding how axons choose which way to go in the optic chiasm may help to elucidate how fibers in general find their way to their targets. In the developing visual system of vertebrates, large numbers of fibers are confronted with the same ipsilateral/contralateral choice; the choice is made in a structure physically separate from the brain and free of other fiber tracts, and the eyes in many species are accessible for experimental manipulation during embryogenesis. Thus, this system is a powerful one for exploration of the rules that regulate laterality choice.


Optic Nerve Ganglion Cell Retinal Ganglion Cell Superior Colliculus Optic Chiasm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akagawa and Barnstable, C., 1986, Identification and characterization of cell types in monolayer cultures of rat retina using monoclonal antibodies. Brain Res. 353:110–120.Google Scholar
  2. Arora, H. L., and Sperry, R. W., 1962, Optic nerve regeneration after surgical cross-union of medial and lateral optic tracts, Am. Zool. 2:61.Google Scholar
  3. Attardi, D. G., and Sperry, R. W., 1963, Preferential selection of central pathways by regenerating optic fibers, Exp. Neurol. 7:46–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bate, M., 1976, Pioneer neurons in an insect embryo. Nature (London) 260:54–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beach, D. H., and Jacobson, M., 1979a, Patterns of cell proliferation in the retina of the clawed frog during development, J. Comp. Neurol. 183:603–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beach, D. H., and Jacobson, M., 1979b, Influences of thyroxine on cell proliferation in the retina of the clawed frog at different ages, J. Comp. Neurol. 183:615–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beach, D. H., and Jacobson, M., 1979c, Patterns of cell proliferation in the developing retina of the clawed frog in relation to blood supply and position of the choroidal fissure, J. Comp. Neurol. 183:624–632.Google Scholar
  8. Beazley, L. D., 1975a, Factors determining decussation at the optic chiasma by developing retinotectal fibres in Xenopus, Exp. Brain Res. 23:491–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beazley, L. D., 1975b, Development of intertectal neuronal connections Xenopus: The effects of contralateral transposition of the eye and of eye removal, Exp. Brain Res. 23:505–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bravo, H., and Pettigrew, J. D., 1981, The distribution of neurons projecting from the retina and visual cortex to the thalamus and tectum opticum of the barn owl Tytoalba and the burrowing owl Speotyto cunicularia, J. Comp. Neurol. 199:419–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunt, A. H., Minckler, D. S., and Johanson, G. W., 1977, Demonstration of bilateral projection of the central retina of the monkey with horseradish peroxidase neuronography, J. Comp. Neurol. 171:619–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bunt, S. M., Lund, R. D., and Land, P. W., 1983, Prenatal development of the optic projection in albino and hooded rats. Dev. Brain Res. 6:149–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooper, M. L., and Pettigrew, J. D., 1979a, The decussation of the retinothalamic pathway in the cat, with a note on the major meridians of the cat’s eye, J. Comp. Neurol. 187:285–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooper, M. L., and Pettigrew, J. D., 1979b, The retinothalamic pathways in Siamese cats, J. Comp. Neurol. 187:313–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cowey, A., and Perry, V. H., 1979, The projection of the temporal retina in rats, studied by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase, Exp. Brain Res. 35:457–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Creel, D., Hendrickson, A. E., and Leventhal, A., 1982, Retinal projections in tyrosinase-negative albino cats, J. Neurosci. 2:907–911.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cucchiaro, J., and Guillery, R. W., 1984, The development of the retinogeniculate pathways in normal and albino ferrets, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 223:141–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Currie, J., and Cowan, W. M., 1974, Evidence for the late development of the uncrossed retinothalamic projections in the frog, Rana pipiens. Brain Res. 71:133–139.Google Scholar
  19. Dräger, U. C., 1985a, Calcium binding in pigmented and albino mice, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 11:14.Google Scholar
  20. Dräger, U., 1985b, Birthdates of retinal ganglion cells giving rise to the crossed and uncrossed optic projections in the mouse, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 224:57–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dräger, U., and Hofbauer, A., 1984, Antibodies to heavy neurofilament subunit detect a sub-population of damaged ganglion cells in retina. Nature (London) 309:624–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dräger, U. C., and Olsen, J. F., 1980, Origins of crossed and uncrossed retinal projections in pigmented and albino mice, J. Comp. Neurol. 191:383–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dreher, B., Sefton, A. J., Ni, S. Y. K., and Nisbett, G., 1985, The morphology, number, distribution and central projections of class I retinal ganglion cells in albino and hooded rats. Brain Behav. Evol. 26:10–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dunlop, S. A., and Beazley, L. D., 1984, A morphometric study of the retinal ganglion cell layer and optic nerve from metamorphosis in Xenopuslaevis, Vision Res. 24:417–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Easter, S. S., Rusoff, A. C., and Kish, P. E., 1981, The growth and organization of the optic nerve and tract in juvenile and adult goldfish, J. Neurosci. 1:793–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Feldon, S., Feldon, P., and Kruger, L., 1970, Topography of the retinal projection upon the superior colliculus of the cat. Vision Res. 10:135–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fisher, L., 1972, Changes during maturation and metamorphosis in the synaptic organization in the tadpole retina inner plexiform layer. Nature (London) 235:391–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Eraser, S. E., 1979, Late LEO: A new system for the study of neuroplasticity in Xenopus, in Developmental Neurobiology of Vision (R. D. Freeman, ed.), p. 319–330, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Fraser, S. E., and Hunt, R. K., 1980, Retinotectal specificity, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 3:319–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fritzsch, B., Himstedt, W., and Crapon de Caprona, M. D., 1985, Visual projections in larval Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, Dev. Brain Res. 23:201–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frost, D., and Schneider, G., 1979, Plasticity of retinofugal projections after partial lesions of the retina in Syrian hamsters, J. Comp. Neurol 185:517–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gaze, R. M., 1978, The problem of specificity in the formation of nerve connections, in Specificity of Embryological Interactions (D. Garard, ed.), pp. 51–96, Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  33. Gaze, R. M., and Grant, P., 1978, The diencephalic course of regenerating retino tectal fibres in Xenopus tadpoles, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 22:201–216.Google Scholar
  34. Gilbert, L., and Frieden, E.: Metamorphosis: A problem in developmental biology, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  35. Giolli, R. A., and Guthrie, M. D., 1969, The primary optic projections in the rabbit. An experimental degeneration study, J. Comp. Neurol. 136:99–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Godement, P., Saillour, P., and Imbert, M., 1980, The ipsilateral optic pathway to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and superior colliculus in mice with prenatal or postnatal loss of one eye, J. Comp. Neurol. 190:611–626.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Godement, P., Salaun, J., and Imbert, M., 1984, Prenatal and postnatal development of retinogeniculate and retinocollicular projections in the mouse, J. Comp. Neurol. 230:552–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Godement, P., Salaun, J., and Metin, C., 1987, Fate of uncrossed retinal projections following early or late prenatal monocular enucleation in the mouse, J. Comp. Neurol 255: 97–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Green, W. L., 1978, Mechanism of action of antithyroid components, in The Thyroid (S. C. Werner and S. H. Ingbar, eds.), pp. 41–51, Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  40. Grigonis, A. M., Pearson, H. E., and Murphy, E. H., 1986, The effects of neonatal monocular enucleation on the organization of ipsilateral and contralateral retinothalamic projections in the rabbit. Dev. Brain Res. 29:9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grobstein, P., and Comer, C., 1977, Post-metamorphic eye migration in Rana and Xenopus, Nature (London) 269:54–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Guillery, R. W., 1969, An abnormal retinogeniculate projection in Siamese cats. Brain Res. 14:739–741.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guillery, R. W., 1982, The optic chiasm of the vertebrate brain, Contrih. Sensory Physiol. 7:39–73.Google Scholar
  44. Guillery, R. W., and Walsh, C., 1987, Changing glial organization relates to changing fiber order in the developing optic nerve of ferrets, J. Comp. Neurol. 265:203–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guillery, R. W., Scott, B., Cattnach, M., and Deol, M., 1973, Genetic mechanisms determining the central visual pathways of mice. Science 179:1014–1016.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Guillery, R. W., Casagrande, V. A., and Oberdorfer, M. D., 1974, Congenitally abnormal vision in Siamese cats, Nature (London) 252:195–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harris, W. A., 1986, Homing behavior of axons in the embryonic vertebrate brain. Nature (London) 320:266–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harting, J. K., and Guillery, R. W., 1976, Organization of retinocollicular pathways in the cat, J. Comp. Neurol 166:133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Himstedt, W., and Manteuffel, G., 1985, Retinal projections in the caecilian Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, Cell Tissue Res. 239:689–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hishinuma, A., and Hildebrand, J. G., 1987, Brain organization of Manduca sexta studied with monoclonal antibodies, Soc. Neurosci. Ahstr. 13:1515.Google Scholar
  51. Hockfield, S., and MacKay, R., 1985, Identification of major cell classes in the developing mammalian nervous system, J. Neuroscience 5:3310–3328.Google Scholar
  52. Hockfield, S., 1987, A monoclonal antibody to a unique cerebellar neuron generated by immunosuppression and rapid immunization. Science 237:67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Holcombe, V., and Guillery, R. W., 1984, The organization of retinal maps within the dorsal and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei of the rabbit, J. Comp. Neurol. 225:469–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hollyday, M., and Grobstein, P., 1981, Of limbs and eyes and neuronal connectivity, in Studies in Developmental Neurobiology (W. M. Cowan, ed.), Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  55. Hollyfield, J. G., 1971, Differential growth of the neural retina of Xenopus laevis larvae, Dev. Biol. 24:264–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Holt, C. E., and Harris, W. A., 1983, Order in the initial retinotectal map in Xenopus: A new technique for labeling growing nerve fibers, Nature (London) 301:150–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hoskins, S. G., 1986, Control of the development of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in Xenopus laevis by thyroxine: Results and speculation, J. Neurobiol. 17:203–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoskins, S. G., 1987, Distribution of ipsilaterally-projecting axons in the optic nerve of Xenopus, Soc. Neurosci. Ahstr. 13:949.Google Scholar
  59. Hoskins, S. G., and Grobstein, P., 1980, Distribution of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells in Xenopus and its re-establishment following optic nerve section, Soc. Neurosci. Ahstr. 6:647.Google Scholar
  60. Hoskins, S. G., and Grobstein, P., 1982, Retinal histogenesis and the development of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in Xenopus, Soc. Neurosci. Ahstr. 8:513.Google Scholar
  61. Hoskins, S. G., and Grobstein, P., 1984, Induction of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in X. laevis by thyroxine. Nature (London) 307:730–733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoskins, S. G., and Grobstein, P., 1985a, Development of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in the irog Xenopus laevis: I. Retinal distribution of ipsilaterally projecting cells in normal and experimentally manipulated frogs, J. Neurosci. 5:911–919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hoskins, S. G., and Grobstein, P., 1985b, Development of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in the frog Xenopus laevis: II. Ingrowth of optic nerve fibers and production of ipsilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells, J. Neurosci. 5:920–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hoskins, S. G., and Grobstein, P., 1985c, Development of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projection in the irog Xenopus laevis: III. Role of thyroxine, J. Neurosci. 5:930–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hsiao, K., 1984, Bilateral branching contributes minimally to the enhanced ipsilateral projection in monocular Syrian golden hamsters, J. Neurosci. 4:368–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hughes, A., 1977, The topography of vision in mammals of contrasting life style: Comparative optics and retinal organization, in Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. II, Part 5. (F. Crescitelli, ed.), pp. 613–756, Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  67. Insausti, R., Blakemore, C., and Cowan, W. M., 1984, Ganglion cell death during development of ipsilateral retino-collicular projection in golden hamster. Nature (London) 308:362–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jacobson, M., 1976, Histogenesis of the retina of the clawed frog with implications for the pattern of development of retinotectal connections, Brain Res. 127:55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jeffery, G., 1984, Retinal ganglion cell death and terminal field retraction in the developing rodent visual system, Dev. Brain Res. 13:81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jeffery, G., and Perry, V. H., 1982, Evidence for ganglion cell death during development of the ipsilateral retinal projection in the rat, Dev. Brain Res. 2:176–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kahn, A. J., 1973, Ganglion cell formation in the chick neural retina. Brain Res. 63:285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kennard, C., 1981, Factors involved in the development of ipsilateral retinothalamic projections in Xenopus laevis, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 65:199–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Khalil, E., and Szekely, G., 1976, The development of the ipsilateral retinothalamic projections in the Xenopus toad. Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 27:253–260.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kliot, M., and Shatz, C. J., 1985, Abnormal development of the retinogeniculate projection in Siamese cats, J. Neurosci. 5:2641–2653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Kollros, J., 1981, Transitions in the nervous system during amphibian metamorphosis, in Metamorphosis: A Problem in Developmental Biology (L. Gilbert and E. Frieden, eds.), p. 445–459, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  76. Lam, K., Sefton, A. H., and Bennett, M. R., 1982, Loss of axons from the optic nerve of the rat during early postnatal development. Dev. Brain Res. 3:487–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Land, P. W., 1987, Dependence of cytochrome oxidase activity in the rat lateral geniculate nucleus on retinal innervation, J. Comp. Neurol. 262:78–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Land, P. W., and Lund, R. D., 1979, Development of the rat’s uncrossed retinotectal pathway and its relation to plasticity studies, Science 205:698–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lauder, J. M., 1983, Hormonal and humoral influences on brain development, Psychoneuroen- docrinology 8:121–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lazar, G., 1971, The projection of the retinal quadrants on the optic centres in the frog, Acta Morphol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19:325–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Leloup, J., and Buscaglia, M., 1977, La triiodothyronine, hormone de la metamorphose des amphibiens, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 284:2261–2263.Google Scholar
  82. Levine, R., 1980, An autoradiographic study of the retinal projection in Xenopus laevis, with comparisons to Rana, J. Comp. Neurol. 189:1–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lund, R. D., 1978, Development and Plasticity of the Brain, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Lund, R. D., Cunningham, T. J., and Lund, J. S., 1973, Modified optic projections after unilateral eye removal in young rats, Brain Behav. Evol. 8:51–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lund, R. D., Lund, J. S., and Wise, R. P., 1974, The organization of the retinal projection to the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus in pigmented and albino rats, J. Comp. Neurol. 158:383–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. MacLean, N., and Turner, M., 1976, Adult hemoglobin in developmentally retarded tadpoles of Xenopus laevisj. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 35:261–266.Google Scholar
  87. Maggs, A., and Scholes, J., 1986, Glial domains and nerve fiber patterns in the fish retinotectal pathway, J. Neurosci. 6:424–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Morgan, J. E., Henderson, Z., and Thompson, I. D., 1987, Retinal decussation patterns in pigmented and albino ferrets, Neuroscience 20:519–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ng, A. Y. K., and Stone, J., 1982, The optic nerve of the cat: Appearance and loss of axons during normal development. Dev. Brain Res. 5:263–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Nieuwkoop, P. D., and Faber, J., 1967, Normal Table of Xenopus laevis (daudin), North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  91. O’Leary, D. D. M., Gerfen, C. R., and Cowan, W. M., 1983, The development and restriction of the ipsilateral retinofugal projection in the chick. Dev. Brain Res. 10:93–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ostrach, L. H., Crabtree, J. W., and Chow, K. L., 1986, The ipsilateral retinocollicular projection in the rabbit: An autoradiographic study of postnatal development and effects of unilateral enucleation, J. Comp. Neurol. 254:369–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Perry, V. H., Henderson, Z., and Linden, R., 1983, Postnatal changes in retinal ganglion cell and optic axon populations in the pigmented rat, J. Comp. Neurol. 219:356–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pettigrew, J. D., 1986, Flying primates? Megabats have the advanced pathway from eye to midbrain, Science 231:1304–1306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Polyak, S., 1957, The Vertebrate Visual System (H. Kluver, ed.). University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  96. Provis, J. M., and Watson, C. R., 1981, The distribution of ipsilaterally and contralaterally projecting ganglion cells in the retina of the pigmented rabbit, Exp. Brain Res. 44:82–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rakic, P., 1975, Prenatal genesis of connections subserving ocular dominance in the rhesus monkey, Nature (London) 261:467–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rakic, P., 1977, Prenatal development of the visual system in the rhesus monkey, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 278:245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rakic, P., and Riley, K. P., 1983a, Overproduction and elimination of retinal axons in the fetal rhesus monkey. Science 219:1441–1444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rakic, P., and Riley, K. P., 1983b, Regulation of axon number in primate optic nerve by prenatal binocular competition, Nature (London) 305:135–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Reese, B. E., and Jeffery, G., 1983, Crossed and uncrossed visual topography in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the pigmented rat, J. Neurophysiol. 49:877–885.Google Scholar
  102. Rettig, G., and Roth, G., 1982, Afferent visual projections in three species of lungless salamanders (family Plethodontidae), Neurosci. Lett. 31:221–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Rettig, G., Fritzsch, B., and Himstedt, W., 1981, Development of retinofugal areas in the brain of the alpine newt, Triturus alpestris, Anat. Embryol. 162:163–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Rodieck, R. W., 1979, Visual pathways, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2:193–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Samuels, H., Perlman, A., Raaka, B., and Stanley, F., 1983, Thyroid hormone receptor synthesis and degradation and interaction with chromatin components, in Molecular Basis of Thyroid Hormone Action (J. Oppenheimer and H. Samuels, eds.), Chap. 4, pp. 100–136, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  106. Sanderson, K. J., 1971, The projection of the visual field to the lateral geniculate and medial interlaminar nuclei in the cat, J. Comp. Neurol. 143:101–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sanderson, K. J., Guillery, R. W., and Shackelford, R. M., 1974, Congenitally abnormal visual pathways in mink (Mustela vison) with reduced retinal pigment, J. Comp. Neurol. 154: 225–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sanes, J., Rubenstein, J. L., and Nicolas, J. F., 1986, Use of a recombinant retrovirus to study post-implantation cell lineage in mouse embryos, EMBO J. 5:3133–3142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Schmidt, J. T., 1978, Retinal fibers alter tectal positional markers during the expansion of the half retinal projection in goldfish, J. Comp. Neurol. 177:279–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sengelaub, D. R., and Finlay, B. L., 1981, Early removal of one eye reduces normally occurring cell death in the remaining eye. Science 213:573–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sengelaub, D. R., Dolan, R. P., and Finlay, B. L., 1986, Cell generation, death and retinal growth in the development of the hamster retinal ganglion cell layer, J. Comp. Neurol. 246:527–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shatz, C. J., 1983, The prenatal development of the cat’s retinogeniculate pathway, J. Neurosci. 3:482–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Shatz, C. J., and Sretavan, D. W., 1986, Interactions between retinal ganglion cells during the development of the mammalian visual system, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 9:171–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shaw, G., and Bray, D., 1977, Movement and extension of isolated growth cones, Exp. Cell Res. 104:55–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Silver, J., 1984, Studies on the factors that govern directionality of axonal growth in the embryonic optic nerve and at the optic chiasm of mice, J. Comp. Neurol. 223:238–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Silver, J., and Sidman, R. L., 1980, A mechanism for the guidance and topographic patterning of retinal ganglion cell axons, J. Comp. Neurol. 189: 101–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Silver, J., and Sapiro, J., 1981, Axonal guidance during development of the optic nerve: The role of pigmented epithelia and other extrinsic factors, J. Comp. Neurol. 202:521–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. So, K.-F., Schneider, G. E., and Frost, D. O., 1978, Postnatal development of retinal projections to the lateral geniculate body in Syrian hamsters. Brain Res. 142:343–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sperry, R. W., 1944, Optic nerve regeneration with recovery of vision in anurans, J. Neurophysiol. 7:57–69.Google Scholar
  120. Sperry, R. W., 1945, Restoration of vision after crossing of optic nerves and after contralateral transplantation of eye, J. Neurophysiol. 8:15–28.Google Scholar
  121. Sperry, R. W., 1963, Chemoaffinity in the orderly growth of nerve fiber patterns and connections, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 50:703–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sretavan, D. W., and Shatz, C. J., 1986, Prenatal development of cat retinogeniculate axon arbors in the absence of binocular interactions, J. Neurosci. 6:990–1003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Stone, J., 1966, The naso-temporal division of the cat’s retina, J. Comp. Neurol 124:337–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stone, J., and Fukuda, Y., 1974, The naso-temporal division of the cat’s retina re-examined in terms of Y-, X-, and W-cells, J. Comp. Neurol. 155:377–394.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Stone, J., Leicester, J., and Sherman, S. M., 1973, The naso-temporal division of the monkey’s retina, J. Comp, Neurol. 150:333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Stone, J., Rowe, M. H., and Campion, J. H., 1978, The nasotemporal division of retina in the Siamese cat, J. Comp. Neurol 180:783–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stone, J., Dreher, B., and Rapaport, D. H., 1984, Development of visual pathways in mammals, Neurol Neurobiol 9.Google Scholar
  128. Straznicky, K., and Gaze, R. M., 1971, The growth of the retina of Xenopus laevis. An autoradiographic study, J. Embryol Exp. Morphol 26:67–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Straznicky, K., and Tay, D., 1977, Retinal growth in double dorsal and double ventral eyes in Xenopus, J. Embryol Exp. Morphol 26:175–185.Google Scholar
  130. Strongin, A. C., and Guillery, R. W., 1981, The distribution of melanin in the developing optic stalk and its relation to cellular degeneration, J. Neurosci. 1:1193–1209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Thompson, L D., 1979, Changes in the uncrossed retinotectal projection after removal of the other eye at birth, Nature (London) 279:63–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Thompson, C. C., Weinberger, C., Lebo, R., and Evans, R. M., 1987, Identification of a novel thyroid hormone receptor expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. Science 237:1610–1614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Turner, D., and Cepko, C., 1987, A common progenitor for neurons and glia persists in rat retina late in development. Nature 328:131–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Varon, S., Manthorpe, M., and Williams, L., 1984, Neuronotrophic and neurite-promoting factors and their clinical potentials. Dev. Neurosci. 6:73–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wakakuwa, K., Washida, A., and Fukuda, Y., 1985a, Ipsilaterally projecting retinal ganglion cells in the eastern chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus asiaticus), Neurosci. Lett. 55:219–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wakakuwa, K., Washida, A., and Fukuda, Y., 1985b, Distribution and soma size of ganglion cells in the retina of the eastern chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus asiaticus). Vision Res. 25:877–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Walsh, C., and Polley, E., 1985, The topography of ganglion cell production in the cat’s retina, J. Neurosci. 5:741–750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Walsh, C., Polley, E., Hickey, T., Guillery, R. W., 1983, Generation of cat retinal ganglion cells in relation to central pathways, Nature (London) 302:611–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wassle, H., 1982, Morphological types and central projections of ganglion cells in the cat retina, in Progress in Retinal Research (N. Osborne and G. Chandler, eds.), pp. 125–152, Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  140. Weinberger, C., Thompson, C. C., Ong, E., Lebo, R., Gruol, D., and Evans, R. J., 1986, The cerbgene encodes a thyroid hormone receptor. Nature (London) 324:641–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Weiss, P. A., 1960, in Analysis of Development (B. Willier, P. A. Weiss, and V. Hamburger, eds.), pp. 346–401, W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  142. Wikler, K. C., Raabe, J. L, and Finlay, B. L., 1985, Temporal retina is preferentially represented in the early retinotectal projection in the hamster, Dev. Brain Res. 21:152–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Williams, R. W., Bastiani, M. J., and Chalupa, L. M., 1983, Loss of axons in the cat optic nerve following fetal unilateral enucleation: An electron microscopic analysis, J. Neurosci. 3:133–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Wilt, F. H., 1959, The organ specific action of thyroxine in visual pigment differentiation, J. Embryol Exp. Morphol 7:556–563.Google Scholar
  145. Young, R. W., 1984, Cell death during differentiation of the retina in the mouse, J. Comp. Neurol. 229:362–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sally G. Hoskins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations