Developmental Heterochrony and the Evolution of Species Differences in Retinal Specializations

  • Kenneth C. Wikler
  • Barbara L. Finlay
Part of the Perspectives in Vision Research book series (PIVR)


The vertebrate retina is relatively stable across phylogeny in the classes and types of cell that compose its radial organization. Mechanistic studies of development have described how aspects of retinal organization common to all retinas emerge, such as the control of neurogenesis of particular cell types, competitive control of cell survival and dendritic organization in the development of retinal lamination, and the mechanics of directed axon outgrowth. However, vertebrate eyes also differ markedly between species in overall size, shape, and resolving power as well as in the number and arrangement of cells in the retina. Thus, studies of retinal neurogenesis must account for the development of species differences in eye conformation and retinal organization and address the evolutionary regulation of these developmental programs.


Ganglion Cell Retinal Ganglion Cell Ganglion Cell Layer Retinal Specialization Developmental Duration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth C. Wikler
    • 1
  • Barbara L. Finlay
    • 2
  1. 1.Section of Neuroanatomy, School of MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCornell UniversityIthacaUSA

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