The Endometrium of Delayed and Early Implantation

  • Randall L. Given
  • Allen C. Enders


A delay of implantation is a prominent feature in the reproductive pattern of many animals (Renfree and Calaby, 1981). It is responsible for extending the length of gestation beyond that expected, considering the size of the young at birth and the relative maturity of the neonates. It is particularly interesting since it appears to be a condition in which the development of the blastocyst is controlled by the uterus. Although the term delay of implantation suggests that the attachment of the embryo to the uterus is prevented, the prolongation can occur at any time during the preimplantation period from entry into the uterus until adhesion of the blastocyst to uterine luminal epithelium.


Delay Period Glandular Epithelium Luminal Epithelium Luminal Epithelial Cell Tammar Wallaby 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aitken, R. J., 1974a, Delayed implantation in roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ), J. Reprod. Fértil 39: 225–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aitken, R. J., 1974b, Calcium and zinc in the endometrium and uterine flushing of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during delayed implantation, J. Reprod. Fértil. 40: 333–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aitken, R. J., 1975, Ultrastructure of the blastocyst and endometrium of the roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus) during delayed implantation, J. Anat. 119: 369–384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aitken, R. J., 1977a, Changes in the protein content of mouse uterine flushings during normal pregnancy and delayed implantation, and after ovariectomy and oestradiol administration, J. Reprod. Fértil. 50: 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aitken, R. J., 1977b, The culture of mouse blastocysts in the presence of uterine flushings collected during normal pregnancy, delayed implantation and pro-oestrus, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 41: 295–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aitken, R. J., 1981, Aspects of delayed implantation in the roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ), J. Reprod. Fértil. [Suppl.] 29: 83–95.Google Scholar
  7. Aitken, R. J., Burton, J., Hawkins, J., Kerr-Wilson, R., Short, R. V., and Stevens, D. H., 1973, Histological and ultrastructural changes in the blastocyst and reproductive tract of the roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), during delayed implantation, J. Reprod. Fértil. 34: 481–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alden, R. H., 1947, Implantation of the rat egg. II. Alterations in epithelial lipids of the rat uterus under normal and experimental conditions, Anat. Rec. 97: 1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andersson, C. B., and Gustafsson, T. O., 1979, Delayed implantation in lactating bank voles, Clethrionomys glareolus, J. Reprod. Fértil. 57: 349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Backhouse, K. M., and Hewer, H. E., 1964, Features of reproduction in the grey seal, Med. Biol. Illus. 14: 144–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baevski, Y. B., 1967, Cytocaryometric researches on blastocyst in the mole, Talpa altaica, during the diapause period, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 176: 1198–2000.Google Scholar
  12. Barabash-Nikiforov, I. I., 1935, The sea otter of the Commander Islands, J. Mammal. 16: 225–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bartelmez, G. S., 1957, The form and the functions of the uterine blood vessels in the rhesus monkey, Contrib. Embryol. Carnegie Inst. 36: 153–182.Google Scholar
  14. Bartelmez, G. W., Corner, G. W., and Hartman, C. G., 1951, Cyclic changes in the endometrium of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatto) y Contrib. Embryol. Carnegie Inst. 34: 99–146.Google Scholar
  15. Bensley, C. M., 1951, Cyclic fluctuations in the rate of epithelial mitosis in the endometrium of the rhesus monkey, Contrib. Embryol. Carnegie Inst. 34: 89–98.Google Scholar
  16. Bergstrom, S., 1972, Delay of blastocyst implantation in the mouse by ovariectomy or lactation. A scanning electron microscope study, Fértil. Steril. 23: 548–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bergstrom, S., and Nilsson, O., 1972, Ultrastructural response of blastocysts and uterine epithelium to progesterone deprivation during delayed implantation in mice, J. Endocrinol. 55: 217–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bernard, O., Ripoche, M. -A., and Bennett, D., 1977, Distribution of maternal immunoglobulins in the mouse uterus and embryo in the days after implantation, J. Exp. Med. 145: 58–75.Google Scholar
  19. Bischoff, T. L. W., 1854, Entwicklingsgeschichte des Rehes, J. Ricker’sche Buchhandlung, Giessen.Google Scholar
  20. Bonnin, M., and Canivenc, R., 1980, Environmental factors involved in delayed implantation, Prog. Reprod. Biol. 7: 173–188.Google Scholar
  21. Bonnin, M., Canivenc, R., and Ribes, C., 1978, Plasma progesterone levels during delayed implantation in the European badger (Meles meles), J. Reprod. Fértil. 52: 55–58.Google Scholar
  22. Borodulina, T. L., 1951, Latent period of embryonic development in the Siberian mole, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 80: 689–692.Google Scholar
  23. Boshier, D. P., 1976, Effects of the rat blastocyst on neutral lipids and non-specific esterases in the uterine luminal epithelium at the implantation area, J. Reprod. Fértil. 46: 245–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Boshier, D. P., 1979, Electron microscopic studies on the endometrium of the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) during its preparation for nidation, J. Anat. 128: 721–735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boshier, D. P., 1981, Structural changes in the corpus luteum and endometrium of seals before implantation, J. Reprod. Fértil. [Suppl.] 29: 143–149.Google Scholar
  26. Boshier, D. P., and Holloway, H., 1973, Effects of ovarian steroid hormones on histochemically demonstrable lipids in the rat uterine epithelium, J. Endocrinol. 56: 59–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Boshier, D. P., Holloway, H., and Millener, N. M., 1981, Triacylglycerols in the rat uterine epithelium during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy, J. Reprod. Fértil. 62: 441–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brambell, F. W. R., 1935, Reproduction in the common shrew (Sorex araneus L.). I. The oestrous cycle of the female, Phil Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 225: 1–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brambell, F. W. R., 1937, The influence of lactation of the mammalian embryo, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 33: 942–954.Google Scholar
  30. Brambell, F. W. R., and Hall, K., 1936, Reproduction in the lesser shrew ( Sorex minutus Linnaeus ), Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 957.Google Scholar
  31. Brambell, F. W. R., and Rowlands, I. W., 1936, Reproduction of the bank vole (Evotomys glareolus, Schreber). I. The oestrous cycle of the female, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 226: 71–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Brenner, R. M., Carlisle, K. S., Hess, D. L., Sandow, B. A., and West, B. A., 1983, Morphology of the oviducts and endometria of cynomolgus macaques during the menstrual cycle, Biol. Reprod. 29: 1289–1302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Buchanan, G. D., 1967, The presence of two conceptuses in the uterus of a nine-banded armadillo, J. Reprod. Fértil. 13: 329–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Buchanan, G. D., Enders, A. C., and Talmage, R. V., 1956, Implantation in armadillos ovariectomized during the period of delayed implantation, J. Endocrinol. 14: 121–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Burns, J. M., 1981, Aspects of endocrine control of delay phenomena in bats with special emphasis on delayed development, J. Reprod. Fértil. [Suppl.] 29: 61–66.Google Scholar
  36. Calarco, P. G., and Epstein, C. J., 1973, Cell surface changes during preimplantation development in the mouse, Dev. Biol. 332: 208–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Canivenc, R., and Bonnin, M., 1981, Environmental control of delayed implantation in the European badger ( Meles meles ), J. Reprod. Fértil. [Suppl.] 29: 25–33.Google Scholar
  38. Canivenc, R., and Laffargue, M., 1963, Inventory of problems raised by the delayed ova implantation in the European badger (Meles meles L.), in: Delayed Implantation ( A. C. Enders, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 115–125.Google Scholar
  39. Cardell, R. R., Jr., Hisaw, F. L., and Dawson, A. B., 1969, The fine structure of granular cells in the uterine endometrium of the rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatto) with a discussion of the possible function of these cells in relaxin secretion, Am. J. Anat. 124: 307–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chatterton, R. T., Jr., Macdonald, G. J., and Ward, D. A., 1975, Effect of blastocysts on rat ovarian steroidogenesis in early pregnancy, Biol. Reprod. 13: 77–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chavez, D. J., and Anderson, T. L., 1985, The glycocalyx of the mouse uterine luminal epithelium during estrus, early pregnancy, the peri-implantation period, and delayed implantation. I. Acquisition of Ricinus communis I binding sites during pregnancy, Biol. Reprod. 32: 1135–1142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Christie, G. A., 1967, Implantation of the rat embryo: Further histochemical observations on carbohydrate, RNA and lipid metabolic pathways, J. Reprod. Fértil. 13: 281–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Craig, A. M., 1964, Histology of reproduction and the estrus cycle in the female fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, J. Fish. Board. Can. 21: 773–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Craighead, J. J., Hornocker, M. G., and Craighead, F. C., 1969, Reproductive biology of young female grizzly bears, J. Reprod. Fértil. [Suppl.] 6: 447–475.Google Scholar
  45. Daniel, J. C., Jr., 1970, Dormant embryos of mammals, Bioscience 20: 411–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Daniel, J. C., Jr., 1971, Growth of the preimplantation embryo of the northern fur seal and its correlation with changes in uterine protein, Dev. Biol. 26: 316–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Daniel, J. C., Jr., 1975, Concentrations of circulating progesterone during early pregnancy in the northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32: 65–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Daniel, J. C., Jr., 1981, Delayed implantation in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and other pinnipeds, J. Reprod. Fértil. [Suppl.] 29: 35–50.Google Scholar
  49. Daniel, J. C., Jr., and Krishman, R. S., 1969, Studies on the relationship between uterine fluid components and the diapausing state of blastocysts from mammals having delayed implantation, J. Exp. Zool. 172: 267–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dawson, A. B., and Kosters, B. A., 1944, Preimplantation changes in the uterine mucosa of the cat, Am. J. Anat. 74: 1–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Deanesly, R., 1935, The reproductive processes of certain mammals. IX. Growth and reproduction in the stoat ( Mustela erminea ), Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. [B] 225: 459–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Deanesly, R., 1943, Delayed implantation in the stoat ( Mustela mustela ), Nature 151: 365–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. De Hertogh, R., Ekka, E., Vanderheyden, I., and Glorieux, B., 1986, Estrogen and progesterone receptors in the implantation sites and interembryonic segments of rat uterus endometrium and myometrium, Endocrinology 119: 680–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Denker, H. -W., Enders, A. C., and Schlafke, S., 1985, Bizarre hypertrophy of vascular endothelial cells in rhesus monkey endometrium: Experimental induction and electron microscopical characteristics, Verh. Anat. Ges. 79: 545–548.Google Scholar
  55. Dey, S. K., and Johnson, D. C., 1986, Embryonic signals in pregnancy, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 476: 49–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Egoscue, H. J., 1960, Laboratory and field studies of the northern grasshopper mouse, J. Mammal. 41: 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Elftman, H., 1958, Estrogen control of the phospholipids of the uterus, Endocrinology 62: 410–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Elftman, H., 1963, Estrogen induced changes in the Golgi apparatus and lipid of the uterine epithelium of the rat in the normal cycle, Anat. Rec. 146: 139–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Enders, A. C., 1961, Comparative studies on the endometrium of delayed implantation, Anat. Rec. 139: 483–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Enders, A. C., 1966, The reproductive cycle of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), in: Comparative Biology of Reproduction in Mammals ( I. W. Rolands, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 295–310.Google Scholar
  61. Enders, A. C., 1967, The uterus in delayed implantation, in: Cellular Biology of the Uterus ( R. M. Wynn, ed.), Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp. 151–186.Google Scholar
  62. Enders, A. C., and Buchanan, G. D., 1959a, The reproductive tract of the female nine-banded armadillo, Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 17: 323–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Enders, A. C., and Buchanan, G. D., 1959b, Some effects of ovariectomy and injection of ovarian hormones in the armadillo, J. Endocrinol 19: 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Enders, A. C., and Nelson, D. M., 1973, Pinocytotic activity of the uterus of the rat, Am. J. Anat. 138: 277–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Enders, A. C., and Schlafke, S., 1965, The fine structure of the blastocyst: Some comparative studies, Ciba Found. Symp. 12: 29–59.Google Scholar
  66. Enders, A. C., and Schlafke, S., 1974, Surface coats of the mouse blastocyst and uterus during the preimplanta-tion period, Anat. Rec. 180: 31–46.Google Scholar
  67. Enders, A. C., and Schlafke, S., 1986, Implantation in nonhuman primates and in the human, in: Comparative Primate Biology, Volume 3: Reproduction and Development ( W. R. Dukelow and J. Erwin, eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 291–210.Google Scholar
  68. Enders, A. C., Buchanan, G. D., and Talmage, R. V., 1958, Histological and histochemical observations on the armadillo uterus during the delayed and post-implantation periods, Anat. Rec. 130: 639–657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Enders, A. C., Enders, R. K., and Schlafke, S., 1963, An electron microscopic study of the gland cells of the mink endometrium, J. Cell Biol. 18: 405–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Enders, A. C., Schlafke, S., and Welsh, A. O., 1980, Trophoblastic and uterine luminal epithelial surfaces at the time of blastocyst adhesion in the rat. Am. J. Anat. 159: 59–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Enders, A. C., Hendrickx, A. G., and Schlafke, S., 1983, Implantation in the rhesus monkey: Initial penetration of the endometrium, Am. J. Anat. 167: 275–298.Google Scholar
  72. Enders, A. C., Welsh, A. O., and Schlafke, S., 1985, Implantation in the rhesus monkey: Endometrial responses, Am. J. Anat. 173: 147–169.Google Scholar
  73. Enders, R. K., 1952, Reproduction in the mink ( Mustela vison ), Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 96: 691–755.Google Scholar
  74. Enders, R. K., 1956, Delayed implantation in mammals, in: Transactions of the Second Conference on Gestation (Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation), ( C. A. Villee, ed.), Madison Publishing Co., Madison, NJ, pp. 113–130.Google Scholar
  75. Enders, R. K., and Enders, A. C., 1963, Morphology of the female reproductive tract during delayed implanta-tion in the mink, in: Delayed Implantation ( A. C. Enders, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 129–140.Google Scholar
  76. Fayenuwo, J. O., and Halstead, L. B., 1974, Breeding cycle of straw-colored fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, at Ile-Ife, Nigeria, J. Mammal. 55: 453–454.Google Scholar
  77. Finn, C. A., and Hinchliffe, J. R., 1965, Histological and histochemical analysis of the formation of implantation chambers in the mouse uterus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 9: 301–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Finn, C. A., and McLaren, A., 1967, A study of the early stages of implantation in mice, J. Reprod. Fertil. 13: 259–267.Google Scholar
  79. Fishel, S. B., 1979, Analysis of mouse uterine proteins at pro-oestrus, during early pregnancy and after administration of exogenous steroids, J. Reprod. Fertil. 55: 91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fisher, H. D., 1954, Delayed implantation in the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina L., Nature 173: 879–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Foresman, K. R., and Mead, R. A., 1973, Duration of postimplantation in a western subspecies of the spotted skunk ( Spilogale putorius ), J. Mammal. 54: 521–523.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Foresman, K. R., and Mead, R. A., 1978, Luteal control of nidation in the ferret ( Mustela putorius ), Biol. Reprod. 18: 490–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Geisert, R. D., Renegar, R. H., Thatcher, W. W., Roberts, R. M., and Bazer, F. W., 1982, Establishment of pregnancy in the pig. I. Interrationships between preimplantation development of the pig blastocyst and uterine endometrial secretions, Biol. Reprod. 27: 925–939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Gidley-Baird, A. A., 1981, Endocrine control of implantation and delayed implantation in rats and mice, J. Reprod. Fertil. [Suppl.] 29: 97–109.Google Scholar
  85. Given, R. L., and Enders, A. C., 1978, Mouse uterine glands during the delayed and induced implantation periods, Anat. Rec. 190: 271–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Given, R. L., and Enders, A. C., 1980, Mouse uterine glands during the peri-implantation period. I. Fine structure, Am. J. Anat. 157: 169–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Given, R. L., and Enders, A. C., 1981a, Mouse uterine glands during the peri-implantation period. II. Autoradiographic studies, Anat. Rec. 199: 109–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Given, R. L., and Enders, A. C., 1981b, Autoradiographic studies of mouse uterine glands during the peri-implantation period, in: Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Implantation ( D. Bullock and S. Glasser, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 454–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Given, R. L., and Weitlauf, H. M., 1981, Resumption of DNA synthesis during activation of delayed implanting mouse blastocysts, J. Exp. Zool. 218: 253–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gore-Langton, R. E., and Surani, M. A. H., 1976, Uterine luminal proteins of mice, J. Reprod. Fertil. 46: 271–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gulamhusein, A. P., and Thawley, A. R., 1974, Plasma progesterone levels in the stoat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 36: 405–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gwatkin, R. B. L., 1969, Nutritional requirements for post-blastocyst development in the mouse, Int. J. Fertil. 14: 101–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Hall, K., 1973, Lactic dehydrogenase and other enzymes in the mouse uterus during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy, J. Reprod. Fertil. 34: 79–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hall, K., 1975, Lipids in the mouse uterus during early pregnancy, J. Endocrinol. 65: 233–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hamilton, W. J., Jr., and Eadie, W. R., 1964, Reproduction in the otter, J. Mammal. 45: 242–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hamlett, G. W. D., 1932a, The reproductive cycle in the armadillo, Wiss. Zool. 141: 143–157.Google Scholar
  97. Hamlett, G. W. D., 1932b, Observations on the embryology of the badger, Anat. Rec. 53: 283–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hamlett, G. W. D., 1935, Delayed implantation and discontinuous development in the mammals, Rev. Biol. 10: 432–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hansson, A., 1947, The physiology of reproduction in mink (Mustela vison Schreb) with special reference to delayed implantation, Acta Zool. Stockh. ) 28: 1–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Harrison, R. J., 1960, Reproduction and reproductive organs in common seals ( Phoca vitulina ), Mammalia 24: 372–385.Google Scholar
  101. Harrison, R. J., 1963, A comparison of factors involved in delayed implantation in badgers and seals in Great Britain, in: Delayed implantation ( A. C. Enders, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 99–114.Google Scholar
  102. Harrison, R. J., 1969, Reproduction and reproductive organs, in: The Biology of Marine Mammals ( H. T. Anderson, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 253–348.Google Scholar
  103. Harrison, R. J., and Hamilton, W. J., 1952, The reproductive tract and placenta and membranes of Père David’s deer ( Elaphurus davidianus Milne Edwards ), J. Anat. 86: 203–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Harrison, R. J., and Hyett, A. R., 1954, The development and growth of the placentomes in the fallow deer GDama dama L.), J. Anat. 88: 338–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Harrison, R. J., and Neal, E. G., 1959, Delayed implantation in the badger (Meles meles), Mem. Soc. Endocrinol. 6: 23–25.Google Scholar
  106. Hartmann, C. G., 1944, Regeneration of the monkey uterus after surgical removal of the endometrium and accidental endometriosis, West. J. Surg. Obstet. Gynecol. 52: 87–102.Google Scholar
  107. Hearn, J. P., 1986, The embryo-maternal dialogue during early pregnancy in primates, J. Reprod. Fertil. 76: 809–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hedlund, K., and Nilsson, O., 1971, Hormonal requirements for the uterine attachment reaction and blastocyst implantation in the mouse, hamster and guinea-pig, J. Reprod. Fertil. 26: 267–269.Google Scholar
  109. Hendrickx, A. G., 1971, Embryology of the Baboon, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  110. Heuser, C. H., and Streeter, G. L., 1941, Development of the macaque embryo, Contrib. Embryol. Carnegie Inst. 29: 15–55.Google Scholar
  111. Hewer, H. R., and Backhouse, K. M., 1968, Embryology and foetal growth of the grey seal, Halichoerus grypus, J. Zool. (Lond.) 155: 507–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Hoffman, B., Barth, D., and Karg, H., 1978, Progesterone and estrogen levels in peripheral plasma of the pregnant and nonpregnant roe deer ( Capreolus capreolus ), Biol. Reprod. 19: 931–935.Google Scholar
  113. Hoversland, R. C., and Weitlauf, H. M., 1978, The effect of estrogen and progesterone on the level of amidase activity in fluid flushed from the uteri of ovariectomized mice, Biol. Reprod. 19: 908–912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hoversland, R. C., and Weitlauf, H. M., 1981, Lysis of the zona pellucida and attachment of embryos to the uterine epithelium in ovariectomized mice treated with oestradiol-17(3 and progesterone, J. Reprod. Fertil. 62: 111–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Hoversland, R. C., and Weitlauf, H. M., 1982, In vitro zona-lytic activity in uterine fluid from ovariectomized mice treated with oestradiol-17(3 and progesterone, J. Reprod. Fertil. 64: 223–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Hughes, R. L., Thomson, J. A., and Owen, W. H., 1965, Reproduction in natural populations of the Australian ringtail possum, Pseudochirus pergrinus (Marsupialia: Phalangeridae), in Victoria, Aust. J. Zool. 13: 383–406.Google Scholar
  117. Jenkinson, J. W., 1931, Vertebrate Embryology, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  118. Joshi, M. S., and Murray, I. M., 1974, Immunological studies of the rat uterine fluid peptidase, J. Reprod. Fértil. 37: 361–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Judin, B. S., 1974, Characteristics of the reproduction of the Siberian mole Asioscalops altaica, Acta Theriol. 19: 355–366.Google Scholar
  120. Kennedy, T. G., 1983, Embryonic signals and the initiation of blastocyst implantation, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 36: 531–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kimura, K., and Uchida, T. A., 1983, Ultrastructural observations of delayed implantation in the Japanese long-fingered bat, Miniopterus schreibersii fuliginosus, J. Reprod. Fértil. 69: 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Labhsetwar, A. P., and Enders, A. C., 1968, Progesterone in the corpus luteum and placenta of the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus, J. Reprod. Fértil. 16: 381–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Lataste, F., 1891, De la variation de durée la gestation chez les mammifères et des circonstances qui déterminent ces variations, Mem. Soc. Biol. 43: 21–31.Google Scholar
  124. Laws, R. M., 1956, The elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, III. Physiology of reproduction, Falkland Isl. Depend. Surv. Sci. Rep. 15: 1–66.Google Scholar
  125. Layne, J. N., 1968, Ontogeny, in: Biology of Peromyscus (Rodentia), ( J. A. King, ed.), American Society of Mammalologists Lawrence, KS, pp. 148–253.Google Scholar
  126. Lejeune, B., Lamy, F., Lecocq, R., Deschacht, J., and Leroy, F., 1985, Patterns of protein synthesis in endometrial tissues from ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol and progesterone, J. Reprod. Fértil. 73: 223–228.Google Scholar
  127. Lincoln, G. A., and Guinness, F. E., 1972, Effect of altered photoperiod on delayed implantation and moulting in roe deer, J. Reprod. Fértil. 31: 455–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Luckett, W. P., 1974, Comparative development and evolution of the placenta in primates, Contrib. Primatol. 3: 142–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Marston, J. H., and Chang, M. C., 1965, The breeding, management and reproductive physiology of the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ), Lab. Anim. Care 15: 34–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Martin, L., 1984, On the source of uterine “luminal fluid” proteins in the mouse, J. Reprod. Fértil. 71: 73–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Martin, L., Finn, C. A., and Carter, J., 1970, Effects of progesterone and oestradiol-17(3 on the luminal epithelium of the mouse uterus, J. Reprod. Fértil. 21: 461–469.Google Scholar
  132. Martinet, L., Allais, C., and Allain, D., 1981, The role of prolactin and LH in luteal function and blastocyst growth in mink (M us tela vison), J. Reprod. Fértil. [SuppL] 29: 119–130.Google Scholar
  133. McLaren, A., 1968, A study of blastocysts during delay and subsequent implantation in lactating mice, J. Endocrinol. 42: 453–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. McLaren, A., 1973, Blastocyst activation, in: The Regulation of Mammalian Reproduction ( S. J. Segal, R. Crozier, P. A. Corfman, and P. G. Concliffe, eds.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, pp. 321–334.Google Scholar
  135. Mead, R. A., 1968a, Reproduction in eastern forms of the spotted skunk (genus Spilogale), J. Zool. ( Lond. ) 156: 119–136.Google Scholar
  136. Mead, R. A., 1968b, Reproduction in western forms of the spotted skunk (genus Spilogale), J. Mammal. 49: 373–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Mead, R. A., 1981, Delayed implantation in mustelids, with special emphasis on the spotted skunk, J. Reprod. Fértil [Suppl.] 29: 11–24.Google Scholar
  138. Mead, R. A., and Eik-Nes, K. B., 1969, Seasonal variation in plasma levels of progesterone in western forms of the spotted skunk, J. Reprod. Fértil. [SuppL] 6: 397–403.Google Scholar
  139. Mead, R. A., Rourke, A. W., and Swannack, A., 1979, Changes in uterine protein synthesis during delayed implantation in the Western spotted skunk and its regulation by hormones, Biol. Reprod. 21: 39–46.Google Scholar
  140. Mead, R. A., Concannon, P. W., and McRae, M., 1981, Effect of progestins on implantation in the Western spotted skunk, Biol. Reprod. 25: 128–133.Google Scholar
  141. Michener, J. A., 1986, Texas, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  142. Milligan, S. R., and Martin, L., 1984, The resistance of the mouse uterine lumen to flushing and possible contamination of samples by plasma and interstitial fluid, J. Reprod. Fértil. 71: 81–87.Google Scholar
  143. Mintz, B., 1970, Control of embryo implantation and survival, in: Advances in the Biosciences 6 ( G. Raspe, éd.), Pergamon Press-Vieweg, Oxford, pp. 317–341.Google Scholar
  144. Moller, O. M., 1973, The progesterone concentrations in the peripheral plasma of the mink ( Mustela vison) during pregnancy, J. Endocrinol. 56: 121–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Moore, H. D. M., Gens, S., and Hearn, J. P., 1985, Early implantation stages in the marmoset monkey ( Callithrix jacchus ), Am. J. Anat. 172: 2665–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Mulholland, J., and Villee, C. A., Jr., 1984, Proteins synthesized by the rat endometrium during early pregnancy, J. Reprod. Fértil. 72: 395–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Murphy, B. D., 1979, The role of prolactin in implantation and luteal maintenance in the ferret, Biol. Reprod. 21: 517–521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Murphy, B. D., and James, D. A., 1974, Mucopolysaccharide histochemistry of the mink uterus during gestation, Can. J. Zool 52: 687–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Murphy, B. D., Concannon, P. W., Travis, H. F., and Hansel, W., 1981, Prolactin: The hypohyseal factor that terminates embryonic diapause in mink, Biol. Reprod. 25: 487–491.Google Scholar
  150. Murphy, B. D., Mead, R. A., and McKibbin, P. E., 1983, Luteal contribution to the termination of preimplan-tation delay in mink, Biol. Reprod. 28: 497–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Murray, M. K., and Verhage, H. G., 1985, The immunocytochemical localization of a cat uterine protein that is estrogen-dependent ( CUPED ), Biol. Reprod. 32: 1229–1231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Mutere, F. A., 1967, The breeding biology of equatorial vertebrates: Reproduction in the fruit bat, Eiodolon helvum, at latitude 0°20’N, Zoology (Lond.) 153: 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Nelson, D. M., 1986, Morphology and glycoprotein synthesis of uterine glandular epithelium in human basal plate, Anat. Rec. 216: 146–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Nieder, G. L., and Weitlauf, H. M., 1984, Regulation of glycolysis in the mouse blastocyst during delayed implantation, J. Exp. Zool. 231: 121–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Nilsson, B. O., 1974, The morphology of blastocyst implantation, J. Reprod. Fertil. 39: 187–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Nilsson, B. O., 1980, Electron microscopic aspects of epithelial changes related to implantation, Prog. Reprod. Biol. 7: 70–80.Google Scholar
  157. Nilsson, B. O., and Lundkvist, O., 1979, Ultrastructural and histochemical changes of the mouse uterine epithelium on blastocyst activation for implantation, Anat. Embryol. 155: 311–321.Google Scholar
  158. Norris, M. L., and Adams, C. E., 1971, Delayed implantation in the Monogolian gerbil, Meriones un-guiculatus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 27: 487.Google Scholar
  159. O’Neill, C., and Quinn, P., 1983, Inhibitory influences of uterine secretions on mouse blastocysts decreases at the time of blastocyst activation, J. Reprod. Fertil. 29: 123–126.Google Scholar
  160. Orsini, M. W., and Meyer, R. K., 1962, Effect of varying doses of progesterone on implantation in the ovariectomized hamster, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 110: 713–715.Google Scholar
  161. Ouellette, J., and Ronald, K., 1985, Histology of reproduction in harp and grey seals during pregnancy, postparturition, and estrus, Can. J. Zool. 63: 1778–1796.Google Scholar
  162. Owiti, G., Cukierski, M., Tarara, R. P., Enders, A. C., and Hendrickx, A. G., 1986, Early placentation in the African green monkey ( Cercopithecus aethiops ), Acta Anat. 127: 184–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Padykula, H. A., and Taylor, J. M., 1976, Cellular mechanisms involved in cyclic stromal renewal of the uterus. I. The opossum, Didelphis Virginians, Anat. Rec. 184: 5–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Padykula, H. A., Coles, L. G., McCracken, J. A., King, N. W., Jr., Longcope, C., and Kaiserman-Abramof, I. R., 1984, A zonal pattern of cell proliferation and differentiation in the rhesus endometrium during the estrogen surge, Biol. Reprod. 31: 1103–1118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Parr, M. B., 1979, A morphometric analysis of microtubules in relation to the inhibition of lysosome movement in the rat uterine epithelium, Eur. J. Cell Biol. 20: 189–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Parr, M. B., 1980, Endocytosis at the basal and lateral membranes of rat uterine epithelium during early pregnancy, J. Reprod. Fertil. 60: 95–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Parr, M. B., 1982a, Apical vesicles in the rat uterine epithelium during early pregnancy: A morphometric study, Biol. Reprod. 26: 915–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Parr, M. B., 1982b, Effects of ovarian hormones on endocytosis at the basal membranes of rat uterine epithelial cells, Biol. Reprod. 26: 909–913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Parr, M. B., 1983, Relationship of uterine closure to ovarian hormones and endocytosis in the rat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 68: 185–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Parr, E., and Parr, M., 1974, Uterine luminal epithelium: Protrusions mediate endocytosis, not apocrine secretion, in the rat, Biol. Reprod. 11: 220–223.Google Scholar
  171. Parr, M. B., and Parr, E. L., 1977, Endocytosis in the uterine epithelium in the mouse, J. Reprod. Fertil. 50: 151–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Parr, M. B., and Parr, E. L., 1978, Uptake and fate of ferritin in the uterine epithelium of the rat during early pregnancy, J. Reprod. Fertil. 52: 183–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Parr, M. B., and Parr, E. L., 1986, Endocytosis in the rat uterine epithelium at implantation, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 476: 110–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Parr, M. B., Kay, M. G., and Parr, E. L., 1978, Colchicine inhibition of lysosome movement in the rat uterine epithelium, Cytobiologie 18: 374–378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Patterson, J. T., 1913, Polyembryonic development in Tatusia novemcincta, J. Morphol. 24: 559–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Pearson, A. K., and Enders, R. K., 1951, Further observations on the reproduction of the Alaskan fur seal, Anat. Rec. 111: 695–712.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Peppier, R. D., and Canale, J., 1980, Quantitative investigation of the annual pattern of follicular development in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), J. Reprod. Fertil. 59: 193–197.Google Scholar
  178. Peppier, R. D., and Stone, S. C., 1976, Plasma progesterone level in the female armadillo during delayed implantation and gestation: Preliminary report, Lab. Anim. Sci. 26: 501–504.Google Scholar
  179. Peppier, R. D., and Stone, S. C., 1980, Plasma progesterone level during delayed implantation, gestation, and postpartum period in the armadillo, Lab. Anim. Sci. 30: 188–191.Google Scholar
  180. Peyre, A., and Herlant, M., 1967, Ova-implantation différée et déterminisme hormonal chez le Minioptère, Miniopterus schreibersi K. ( Chiroptère ), C. R. Séance Soc. Biol. 161: 1779–1782.Google Scholar
  181. Pinsker, M. C., Sacco, A. G., and Mintz, B., 1974, Implantation-associated proteinase in mouse uterine fluid, Dev. Biol. 38: 285–290.Google Scholar
  182. Potts, D. M., 1966, The attachment phase of ovoimplantation, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 96: 1122–1128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Potts, D. M., 1968, The ultrastructure of implantation in the mouse, J. Anat. 103: 77–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Potts, D. M., and Wilson, I. B., 1967, The preimplantation conceptus of the mouse at 90 hours post coitum, J. Anat. 102: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Pratt, H. P. M., 1977, Uterine proteins and the activation of embryos from mice during delayed implantation, J. Reprod. Fertil. 50: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Prell, H., 1938, Die Tragzeit des Rehes, Zuchtungskunde 13: 325–345.Google Scholar
  187. Psychoyos, A., and Mandon, P., 1971, Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of the rat uterine epithelium during delayed implantation, J. Reprod. Fertil. 26: 137–138.Google Scholar
  188. Ramakrishna, P. A., and Rao, K. V. B., 1977, Reproductive adaptations in the Indian rhinolphid bat, Rhinolophus rouxi ( Temminck ), Curr. Sci. 42: 270–271.Google Scholar
  189. Ramsey, E. M., Houston, M. L., and Harris, J. W. S., 1976, Interactions of the trophoblast and maternal tissues in three closely related primate species, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 124: 647–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Rand, R. W., 1954, Reproduction in the female cape fur seal Arctocephalus pusillus, Proc. Zool. Soc. ( Lond. ) 124: 717–740.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Rasweiler, J. J. IV, 1979, Early embryonic development and implantation in bats, J. Reprod. Fertil. 56: 403–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Ravindra, R., and Mead, R. A., 1984, Plasma estrogen levels during pregnancy in the Western spotted skunk, Biol. Reprod. 30: 1153–1159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Reinius, S., 1967, Ultrastructure of blastocyst attachment in the mouse, Z. Zellforsch. 77: 257–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Renfree, M. B., 1973, Proteins in the uterine secretions of the marsupial Macropus eugenii, Dev. Biol. 32: 41–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Renfree, M. B., 1975, Uterine proteins in the marsupial, Didelphis marsupialis virginiana, during gestation, J. Reprod. Fertil. 42: 163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Renfree, M. B., 1980, Embryonic diapause in the honey possum Tarsipes spencerae, Search 11:81. Renfree, M. B., 1981, Embryonic diapause in marsupials, J. Reprod. Fertil. [Suppl.] 29: 67–78.Google Scholar
  197. Renfree, M. B., and Calaby, J. H., 1981, Background to delayed implantation and embryonic diapause, J. Reprod. Fertil. [Suppl.] 29: 1–9.Google Scholar
  198. Rosenfeld, M. G., and Joshi, M. S., 1977, A possible role of a specific uterine fluid peptidase in implantation in the rat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 51: 137–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Rossman, I., 1940, The deciduomal reaction in the rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatto ), Am. J. Anat. 66: 277–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Roy, S. K., Sengupta, J., and Manchanda, S. K., 1983, Histochemical study of 1-glucuronidase in the rat uterus during implantation and pseudopregnancy, J. Reprod. Fertil. 68: 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Sacco, A. G., and Mintz, B., 1975, Mouse uterine antigens in the implantation period of pregnancy, Biol. Reprod. 12: 498–503.Google Scholar
  202. Schlafke, S. J., and Enders, A. C., 1963, Observations on the fine structure of the rat blastocyst, J. Anat. 97: 353–361.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Schlafke, S. J., Enders, A. C., and Given, R. L., 1981, Cytology of the endometrium of delayed and early implantation with special reference to mice and mustelids, J. Reprod. Fertil. [Suppl.] 29: 135–141.Google Scholar
  204. Sempere, A., 1977, Plasma progesterone levels in the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 5: 365–366.Google Scholar
  205. Sharman, G. B., 1955a, Studies on marsupial reproduction. II. The oestrous cycle of Setonix brachyurus, Aust. J. Zool. 3: 44–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Sharman, G. B., 1955b, Studies on marsupial reproduction. III. Normal and delayed pregnancy in Setonix brachyurus, Aust. J. Zool. 3: 56–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Shaw, G., and Renfree, M. B., 1986, Uterine and embryonic metabolism after diapause in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, J. Reprod. Fertil. 76: 339–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Shelden, R. M., 1972, The fate of short-tailed weasel, Mustela erminea, blastocysts following ovariectomy during diapause, J. Reprod. Fertil. 31: 347–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Sherman, M. I., and Barlow, P. W., 1972, Deoxyribonucleic acid content in delayed mouse blastocysts, 7. Reprod. Fertil. 29: 123–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Sherman, M. I., and Wudl, L. R., 1976, The implanting mouse blastocyst, in: The Cell Surface in Animal Development (G. Poste and G. R. Nicolson, eds.), North Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 81–125.Google Scholar
  211. Short, R. V., and Hay, M. F., 1965, Delayed implantation in the roe deer, Capreolus capreolus, J. Reprod. Fertil. 9: 372–373.Google Scholar
  212. Short, R. V., and Hay, M. F., 1966, Delayed implantation in the roe deer Capreolus capreolus, in: Comparative Biology of Reproduction in Mammals ( I. W. Rolands, ed.), Academic Press, London, pp. 173–194.Google Scholar
  213. Sinha, A. A., and Mead, R. A., 1976, Morphological changes in the trophoblast, uterus and corpus luteum during delayed implantation in the Western spotted skunk, Am. J. Anat. 145: 331–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Sinha, A. A., Conaway, C. H., and Kenyon, K. W., 1966, Reproduction in the female sea otter, J. Wildl. Man. 30: 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Smith, M. S. R., and Wilson, I. B., 1971, Histochemical observations on early implantation in the mouse, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 25: 165–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Smith, A. F., and Wilson, I. B., 1974, Cell interaction at the maternal-embryonic interface during implantation in the mouse, Cell Tissue Res. 152: 525–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Stieve, H., 1950, Anatomische-biologische Untersuchungen über die Fortpflanzungstätigkeit des europäischen Rehes ( Capreolus capreolus capreolus L. ), Z. Mikrosk. Anat. Forsch. 55: 427–530.Google Scholar
  218. Surani, M., 1975a, Zona pellucida denudation, blastocyst proliferation and attachment in the rat, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 33: 343–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Surani, M., 1975b, Hormonal regulation of proteins on the uterine secretion of ovariectomized rats and the implications for implantation and embryonic diapause, J. Reprod. Fertil. 43: 411–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Surani, M. A. H., 1976, Uterine luminal proteins at the time of implantation in rats, J. Reprod. Fertil. 48: 141–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Surani, M. A. H., 1977a, Qualitative and quantitative examination of the proteins of rat uterine luminal fluid during pro-oestrus and pregnancy and comparison with those of serum, J. Reprod. Fertil. 50: 281–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Surani, M. A. H., 1977b, Radiolabelled rat uterine luminal proteins and their regulation by oestradiol and progesterone, J. Reprod. Fertil. 50: 289–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Surani, M. A. H., 1977c, Cellular and molecular approaches to blastocyst uterine interactions at implantation, in: Development in Mammals, Volume 1 ( M. H. Johnson, ed.), Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  224. Svihla, A., 1932, A Comparative Life History Study of the Mice of the Genus Peromyscus, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  225. Tachi, C., and Tachi, S., 1986, Macrophages and implantation, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 476: 158–182.Google Scholar
  226. Talmage, R. V., Buchanan, G. D., Kraintz, F. W., Lazo-Wasem, E. A., and Zarrow, M. X., 1954, The presence of a functional corpus luteum during delay implantation in the armadillo, J. Endocrinol. 11: 44–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Tarara, R. P., Enders, A. C., Hendrickx, A. G., Gulamhusein, N., Hodges, J. K., Hearn, J. P., Eley, R. B., and Else, J. G., 1987, Early implantation and embryonic development of the baboon: Stages 5, 6 and 7, Anat. Embryol. 176: 267–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Tarkowski, A. K., 1957, Studies on reproduction and prenatal morality of the common shrew (Sorex araneus L.). Part II. Reproduction under natural conditions, Ann. Univ. Mariae Curie-Sklodowska 10: 177–244.Google Scholar
  229. Temte, J. L., 1985, Photoperiod and delayed implantation in the northern fur seal ( Callorhinus ursinus ), J. Reprod. Fertil. 73: 127–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H., 1963, The role of the corpus luteum in the delayed implantation of marsupials, in: Delayed Implantation ( A. C. Enders, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 15–32.Google Scholar
  231. Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H., 1970, Resumption of development by quiescent blastocysts transferred to primed, ovariectomized recipients in the marsupial, Macropus eugenii, J. Reprod. Fertil. 23: 25–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Tyndale-Biscoe, H., and Renfree, M., 1987, Reproductive Physiology of Marsupials, Cambridge University Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Tyndale-Biscoe, C. H., Hearn, J. P., and Renfree, M. B., 1974, Control of reproduction in macropodid marsupials, J. Endocrinol. 63: 589–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. van der Merwe, M., 1982, Histological study of implantation in the Natal clinging bat ( Miniopterus schreibersii natalensis ), J. Reprod. Fertil. 65: 319–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Vogel, P., 1972, Beitrag zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie der Gattungen Sorex, Neomys, und Crodidura ( Soricidae ), Verh. Naturf. Ges. (Basel) 82: 165–192.Google Scholar
  236. Vogel, P., 1981, Occurrence and interpretation of delayed implantation in insectivores, J. Reprod. Fertil. [Suppl.] 29: 51–60.Google Scholar
  237. Walker, M. T., and Hughes, R. L., 1981, Ultrastructural changes after diapause in the uterine glands, corpus luteum and blastocyst of the red-necked wallaby, Macropus rufogriseus banksianus, J. Reprod. Fertil. [Suppl.] 29: 151–158.Google Scholar
  238. Wallace, G. I., 1978, A histological study of the early stages of pregnancy in the bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in northeastern New South Wales, Australia (30°27’S), J. Zool. 185: 519–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Ward, W. F., Frost, A. G., and Ward-Orsini, M., 1978, Estrogen binding by embryonic and interembryonic segments of the rat uterus prior to implantation, Biol. Reprod. 18: 598–601.Google Scholar
  240. Warren, R. H., and Enders, A. C., 1964, An electron microscope study of the rat endometrium during delayed implantation, Anat. Ree. 148: 177–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Weaker, F. J., Villareal, C., and Sheridan, P. J., 1981, Localization of 3H-estradiol in the uterus of pregnant and non-pregnant armadillos, Cell Tissue Res. 220: 773–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Weitlauf, H. M., 1974, Metabolic changes in the blastocysts of mice and rats during delayed implantation, J. Reprod. Fertil. 39: 213–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Weitlauf, H. M., 1976, Effect of uterine flushings on RNA synthesis by “implanting” and “delayed implanting” mouse blastocysts in vitro, Biol. Reprod. 14: 566–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Weitlauf, H. M., 1978, Factors in mouse uterine fluid that inhibit the incorporation of [3H]uridine by blastocysts in vitro, J. Reprod. Fertil. 52: 321–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Weitlauf, H. M., 1982, Comparison of the rates of accumulation of nonpolyadenylated and polyadenylated RNA in normal and delayed implanting mouse embryos, Dev. Biol. 93: 266–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Weitlauf, H. M., Kiessling, A. A., and Buschman, R., 1979, Comparison of DNA polymerase activity and cell division in normal and delayed implanting mouse embryos, J. Exp. Zool. 209: 467–472.Google Scholar
  247. Wimsatt, W. A., 1963, Delayed implantation in the Ursidae, with particular reference to the black bear (Ursus americanus Pallus), in: Delayed Implantation ( A. C. Enders, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 49–76.Google Scholar
  248. Wimsatt, W. A., 1974, Morphogenesis of the fetal membranes and placenta of the black bear, Ursus americanus ( Pallus ), Am. J. Anat. 140: 471–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wimsatt, W. A., 1975, Some comparative aspects of implantation, Biol. Reprod. 12: 1–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wislocki, G. B., and Streeter, G. L., 1938, Development of the macaque embryo, Contrib. Embryol. Carnegie Inst. 19: 15–55.Google Scholar
  251. Wong, Y. C., and Dickson, A. D., 1969, A histochemical study of ovoimplantation in the mouse, J. Anat. 105: 547–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Wright, P. L., 1963, Variations in reproduction cycles in North American mustelids, in: Delayed Implantation ( A. C. Enders, ed.), University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 77–95.Google Scholar
  253. Wright, P. L., 1966, Observations on the reproductive cycle of the American badger (Taxidea taxus), in: Comparative Biology of Reproduction in Mammals ( I. W. Rowlands, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 27–45.Google Scholar
  254. Wright, P. L., 1981, Commentary. Delayed implantation in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and other pinnipeds by J. C. Daniel, Jr., J. Reprod. Fertil. [Suppl.] 29: 35–50.Google Scholar
  255. Wright, P. L., and Coulter, M. W., 1967, Reproduction and growth in Maine fishers, J. Wildl. Man. 31: 70–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Yochim, J. M., 1975, Development of the progestational uterus: Metabolic aspect, Biol. Reprod. 12: 106–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Ziegler, L., 1843, Beobachtungen über die Brunst und den Embryo der Rehe, Hannover.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Randall L. Given
    • 1
  • Allen C. Enders
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy and NeurosciencesUniversity of Texas Medical BranchGalvestonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Human AnatomyUniversity of California School of MedicineDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations