Cell Biology of the Endometrium

  • Wendell W. Leavitt


The uterus is an extremely dynamic organ the normal function of which is orchestrated by a regular procession of cellular and molecular events that occur in response to changing levels of ovarian hormones secreted during the female reproductive cycle. This is well exemplified by the human menstrual cycle as depicted in Figs. 1 and 2. The menstrual cycle is named for the one overt indication of the cyclic nature of female reproductive function, that is, the periodic discharge of blood from the vagina, which results from sloughing of the endometrium. The average menstrual cycle is 28 days in length. The first part of the cycle, the proliferative phase, is the phase when follicles grow. Ovulation occurs about midway through the cycle (day 14), and the remainder of the cycle, the secretory phase, reflects corpus luteum function.


Estrogen Receptor Progesterone Receptor Acceptor Site Human Endometrium Decidual Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alberts, B., Bray, D., Lewis J., Raff, ML, Roberts K., and Watson, J. D., 1983, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Garland Publishing, New York, London.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, R. B., Greene, G. L., and Barrack, E. R., 1987, Estrogen receptors in the nuclear matrix: Direct demonstration using monoclonal antireceptor antibody, Endocrinology 120: 1851–1857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. N., Clark, J. H., and Peck, E. J., Jr., 1972, Oestrogen and nuclear binding sites: Determination of specific sites by [3H]-oestradiol exchange, Biochem. J. 126: 561–567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. N., Peck, E. J., Jr., and Clark, J. H., 1974, Nuclear receptor-estradiol complex: A requirement for uterotrophic responses, Endocrinology 95: 174–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, J. N., Peck, E. J., Jr., and Clark, J. H., 1975, Estrogen-induced uterine responses and growth: Relationship to receptor estrogen binding by uterine nuclei, Endocrinology 96: 160–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, W. A., Ahluwalia, B. S., Westney, L. S., Burnett, C. C., and Ruchel, R., 1984, Cervical mucus peroxidase is a reliable indicator for ovulation in humans, Fertil. Sieril. 41: 697–702.Google Scholar
  7. Astwood, E. B., 1939, An assay method for progesterone based upon the decidual cell reaction in the rat, J. Endocrinol. 1: 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Auricchio, F., Migliaccio, A., and Rotondi, A., 1981a, Inactivation of oestrogen receptor in vitro by nuclear dephosphorylation, Biochem. J. 194: 569–574.Google Scholar
  9. Auricchio, F., Migliaccio, A., Castoria, G., Lastoria, S., and Schiavone, E., 1981b, ATP-dependent enzyme activating hormone binding of estradiol receptor, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101: 1171–1178.Google Scholar
  10. Bachmoir, A., Finley, D., and Varshovksy, A., 1986, In vivo half life of a protein is a function of its amino-terminal residue, Science 234: 179–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bailly, A., Atger, M., Atger, P., Carbon, M. -A., Alizon, M., VuHai, M. T., Logeat, F., and Milgrom, E., 1983, The rabbit uteroglobin gene: Structure and interaction with the progesterone receptor. J. Biol. Chem. 258: 10384–10390.Google Scholar
  12. Bailly, A., LePage, C., Rauch, M., and Milgrom, E., 1986, Sequence-specific DNA binding of the progesterone receptor to the uteroglobin gene: Effects of hormone, antihormone and receptor phosphorylation, EMBO J. 5: 3235–3242.Google Scholar
  13. Barrack, E. R., and Coffey, D. S., 1980, The specific binding of estrogens and androgens to the nuclear matrix of sex hormone responsive tissues, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 7265–7275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barrack, E. R., and Coffey, D. S., 1983, The role of the nuclear matrix in steroid hormone action, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Volume 10 ( G. Litwack, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 23–90.Google Scholar
  15. Bartelmez, G. W., 1957, The phases of the menstrual cycle and their interpretation in terms of the pregnancy cycle, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 74: 931–955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bazer, F. W., Vallet, J. L., Ashworth, C. J., Anthony, R. V., and Roberts, R. M., 1987, The role of ovine conceptus secretory proteins in the establishment of pregnancy, in: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Uterus ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 221–235.Google Scholar
  17. Beier, H. M., 1968, Uteroglobin: A hormone-sensitive endometrial protein involved in blastocyst development, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 160: 289–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bell, S. C., 1979, Synthesis of decidualization-associated protein in tissues of the rat uterus and placenta during pregnancy, J. Reprod. Fertil. 56: 255–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bell, S. C., 1986, Purification of human secretory pregnancy-associated endometrial a2-globulin (a2-PEG) from cytosol of first trimester pregnancy endometrium, Hum. Reprod. 1: 313–318.Google Scholar
  20. Bell, S. C., and Searle, R. F., 1981, Differentiation of decidual cells in mouse endometrial cell cultures, J. Reprod. Fertil. 61: 425–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bell, S. C., Patel, S. R., Kirwan, P. U., and Drife, J. O., 1986, Protein synthesis and secretion by the human endometrium during the menstrual cycle and the effect of progesterone in vitro, J. Reprod. Fertil. 77: 221–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bhakoo, H., and Katzenellenbogen, B. S., 1977, Progesterone modulation of estrogen-stimulated uterine biosynthetic events and estrogen receptor levels, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 8: 121–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blaha, G. C., and Leavitt, W. W., 1978, Deciduomal responses in the uteri of ovariectomized golden hamster, comparing progesterone and three closely related steroids applied in utero, Biol. Reprod. 18: 441–447.Google Scholar
  24. Bloom, K. S., and Anderson, J. N., 1979, Conformation of ovalbumin and globin genes in chromatin during differential gene expression, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 10532–10539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Boomsma, R. A., and Verhage, H. G., 1987, Detection of a progesterone-dependent secretory protein synthesized by cat endometrium, Biol. Reprod. 37: 117–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bullock, D. W., 1977, In vitro translation of messenger RNA for a uteroglobin-like protein from rabbit lung, Biol. Reprod. 17: 104–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bullock, D. W., Lamb, D. J., Rider, V. C., and Kima, P. E., 1987, The rabbit progesterone receptor and uteroglobin gene expression, in: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Uterus ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 79–97.Google Scholar
  28. Burch, J. B. E., and Weintraub, H., 1983, Temporal order of chromatin structural changes associated with activation of the major chicken vitellogenin gene, Cell 33: 65–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Butzow, R., Alfthan, H., Julkunen, M., Rutanen, E. M., Bohn, H., and Seppala, M., 1986, Human endometrium and menstrual fluid contain placental protein 5 (PP5), Hum. Reprod. 1: 287–289.Google Scholar
  30. Cato, A. C. B., and Beato, M., 1985, The hormonal regulation of uteroglobin gene expression, Anticancer Res. 5: 65–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cato, A. C. B., Geisse, S., Wentz, M., Westphal, H. M., and Beato, M., 1984, The nucleotide sequences recognized by the glucocorticoid receptor in the rabbit uteroglobin gene region are located far upstream from the initiation of transcription, EMBO J. 3: 2771–2782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chambon, P., Dierich, A., Gaub, M., Jokowler, S., Jongstra, J., Krust, A., LePennec, J., Oudet, P., and Reudelhuber, T., 1984, Promoter elements of genes coding for proteins and modulation of transcription by estrogen and progesterone, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 40: 1–42.Google Scholar
  33. Chamness, G. C., Hutt, K., and McGuire, W. L., 1975, Protamine-precipitated estrogen receptor: A solid-phase ligand exchange assay, Steroids 25: 627–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Chandler, V. L., Maler, B. A., and Yamamoto, K. R., 1983, DNA sequences bound specifically by glucocor-ticoid receptor in vitro render a heterologous promoter hormone responsive in vivo, Cell 33: 489–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chen, T. J., and Leavitt, W. W., 1979, Nuclear progesterone receptor in the hamster uterus: Measurement by [3H]progesterone exchange during the estrous cycle, Endocrinology 104: 1588–1597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chen, T. J., MacDonald, R. G., Robidoux, W. F., Jr., and Leavitt, W. W., 1981, Characterization and quantification of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate-extracted nuclear progesterone receptor, J. Steroid Biochem. 14: 1023–1028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chuknyiska, R. S., and Roth, G. S., 1985, Decreased estrogenic stimulation of RNA polymerase II in aged rat uteri is apparently due to reduced nuclear binding of receptor-estradiol complexes, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 8661–8663.Google Scholar
  38. Clark, J. H., Hseuh, A. J. W., and Peck, E. J., Jr., 1977, Regulation of estrogen receptor replenishment by progesterone, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 286: 161–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cobb, A., and Leavitt, W. W., 1985, Progesterone rapidly decreases the number of chromatin binding sites for nuclear estrogen receptor in the mammalian uterus, J. Cell. Biol. 101: 202a.Google Scholar
  40. Cobb, A. D., and Leavitt, W. W., 1987a, Characterization of nuclear acceptor sites for mammalian pro-gesterone receptor: Comparison with the chick oviduct system, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 67: 214–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cobb, A. D., and Leavitt, W. W., 1987b, Characterization of nuclear binding sites for different forms of uterine progesterone receptor, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 52: 51–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cockerill, P. N., and Garrard, W. T., 1986, Chromosomal loop anchorage of the kappa immunoglobulin gene occurs next to the enhancer in a region containing topoisomerase II sites, Cell 44: 273–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cohen, M. E., and Hamilton, T. H., 1975, Effect of estradiol-17(3 on the synthesis of specific uterine nonhistone chromosomal proteins, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 72: 4346–4350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Compton, J. G., Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1982, Selective binding of chicken progesterone receptor A subunit to a DNA fragment containing ovalbumin gene sequences, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 105: 96–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Conneely, O. M., Sullivan, W. P., Toft, D. O., Birnbaumer, M., Cook, R. G., Maxwell, B. L., Zarucki-Schulz, T., Greene, G. L., Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1986, Molecular cloning of the chicken progesterone receptor, Science 233: 767–770.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Cushing, C. L., Bambara, R. A., and Hilf, R., 1985, Interactions of estrogen-receptor and antiestrogen-receptor complexes with nuclei in vitro, Endocrinology 116: 2419–2430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Daly, D. C., Maslar, I. A., and Riddick, D. H., 1983, Prolactin production during in vitro decidualization of proliferative endometrium, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 145: 672–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Denari, J. H., Germino, N. I., and Romer, J. M., 1976, Early synthesis of uterine proteins after decidual stimulus in the pseudo-pregnant rat, Biol. Reprod. 15: 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. DeSombre, E. R., and Kuivanen, P. C., 1985, Progestin modulation of estrogen-dependent marker protein synthesis in the endometrium, Sem. Oncol. 12: 6–11.Google Scholar
  50. Dice, J. F., 1987, Molecular determinants of protein half-lives in eukaryotic cells, FASEB J. 1: 349–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dickerman, H. W., and Kumar, S., 1982, The polynucleotide binding sites of estradiol receptor complexes, in: Hormones and Cancer ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–18.Google Scholar
  52. Do, Y. S., and Leavitt, W. W., 1978, Characterization of a specific progesterone receptor in decidualized hamster uterus, Endocrinology 102: 443–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Dougherty, J. J., Puri, R. K., and Toft, D. O., 1982, Phosphorylation in vivo of chicken oviduct progesterone receptor, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 14226–14230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Dutt, A., Tang, J., Welply, J. K., and Carson, D. D., 1986, Regulation of N-linked glycoprotein assembly in uteri by steroid hormones, Endocrinology 118: 661–668.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Eckert, R. L., Mullick, A., Rorke, E. A., and Katzenellenbogen, B. S., 1984, Estrogen receptor synthesis and turnover in MCF-7 breast cancer cells measured by a density shift technique, Endocrinology 114: 629–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Emerson, B. M., Lewis, C. D., and Felsenfeld, G., 1985, Interaction of specific nuclear factors with the nuclease-sensitive region of the chicken adult (3-globin gene: Nature of the binding domain, Cell 41: 21–30.Google Scholar
  57. Evans, M. I., Hager, L. J., and McKnight, G. S., 1981, A somatomedin-like peptide hormone is required during the estrogen-mediated induction of ovalbumin gene transcription, Cell 25: 187–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Evans, R. W., and Leavitt, W. W., 1980, Progesterone inhibition of uterine nuclear estrogen receptor: Dependence on RNA and protein synthesis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77: 5856–5860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Evans, R. W., Chen, T. J., Hendry, W. J. III, and Leavitt, W. W., 1980, Progesterone regulation of estrogen receptor in the hamster uterus during the estrous cycle, Endocrinology 107: 383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ferenczy, A., 1980, Regeneration of the human endometrium, in: Progress in Surgical Pathology, Volume 1 ( C. M. Genoglio and L. M. Wolff, eds.), Masson, New York, pp. 157–177.Google Scholar
  61. Finn, C. A., and Martin, L., 1974, The control of implantation, J. Reprod. Fertil. 39: 195–206.Google Scholar
  62. Fleming, H., Blumenthal, R., and Gurpide, E., 1982, Effects of cyclic nucleotides on estradiol binding in human endometrium, Endocrinology 111: 1671–1677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Flickinger, G. L., Eisner, C., Illingworth, D. V., Muerhler, E. K., and Mikhail, G., 1977, Estrogen and progesterone receptors in female genital tract of humans and monkeys, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 286: 180–189.Google Scholar
  64. Garcia, T., Tuohima, P., Mester, J., Buchon, T., Renoir, J., and Baulieu, E., 1983, Protein kinase activity of purified components of the chicken oviduct progesterone receptor, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113: 960–966.Google Scholar
  65. Geier, A., Haimsohn, M., Beeny, R., and Lunenfeld, B., 1985, Physical-chemical properties of the estrogen 165Google Scholar
  66. receptor solubilized by micrococcal nuclease, J. Steroid Biochem. 23: 137–143.Google Scholar
  67. Gilmour, S., 1981, The role of acidic proteins in gene regulation, in: Acidic Proteins of the Nucleus (I. L. Cameron and J. R. Jeter, Jr., eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 297–316.Google Scholar
  68. Glasser, S. R., and Julian, J., 1986, Intermediate filament protein as a marker of uterine stromal cell decid-ualization, Biol. Reprod. 35: 463–474.Google Scholar
  69. Gorski, J., Toft, D., Shyamala, G., Smith, D., and Notides, A., 1968, Hormone receptors: Studies on the interaction of estrogen with the uterus, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 24: 45–80.Google Scholar
  70. Gorski, J., Welshons, W., and Sakai, D., 1984, Remodeling the estrogen receptor model, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 36: 11–15.Google Scholar
  71. Gorski, J., Welshons, W., Sakai, D., Hansen, J., Walent, J., Kassis, J., Shull, J., Stack, G., and Campen, C., 1986, Evolution of a model of estrogen action, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 42: 297–329.Google Scholar
  72. Gravanis, A., and Gurpide, E., 1986, Enucleation of human endometrial cells: Nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of DNA polymerase a and estrogen receptor, J. Steroid Biochem. 24: 469–474.Google Scholar
  73. Gray, G. O., Rundle, S., and Leavitt, W. W., 1987, Purification and partial characterization of a corticosteroid-binding globulin from hamster serum, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 926: 40–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Green, S., and Chambon, P., 1986, A superfamily of potentially oncogenic hormone receptors, Nature 324: 615–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Green, S., Walter, P., Kumar, V., Krust, A., Barnert, J. M., Argus, P., and Chambon, P., 1986, Human oestrogen receptor cDNA: Sequence, expression and homology of v-erb-A, Nature 320: 134–139.Google Scholar
  76. Greene, G. L., 1984, Application of immunochemical techniques to the analysis of estrogen receptor structure and function, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Volume 11 ( G. Litwack, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 207–239.Google Scholar
  77. Greene, G. L., and Jensen, E. V., 1982, Monoclonal antibodies as probes for estrogen receptor detection and characterization, J. Steroid Biochem. 16: 353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Greene, G. L., Gilna, P., Waterfield, M., Baker, A., Hort, Y., and Shine, J., 1986, Sequence and expression of human estrogen receptor complementary DNA, Science 231: 1150–1154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Grody, W. W., Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1982, Activation, transformation, and subunit structure of steroid hormone receptors, Endocrine Rev. 3: 141–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Hansen, J. C., and Gorski, J., 1985, Conformational and electrostatic properties of unoccupied and liganded estrogen receptors determined by aqueous two-phase partitioning, Biochemistry 24: 6078–6085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Hansen, J. C., and Gorski, J., 1986, Conformational transitions of the estrogen receptor monomer, J. Biol. Chem. 261: 13990–13996.Google Scholar
  82. Harper, M. J. K., 1970, Hormonal control of the deciduomal response of the golden hamster uterus, Anat. Rec. 167: 225–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Hau, J. (ed.), 1986, Pregnancy Proteins in Animals, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  84. Heffner, L. J., Iddenden, D. A., and Lyttle, C. R., 1986, Electrophoretic analyses of secreted human endometrial proteins: Identification and characterization of luteal phase prolactin, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 62: 1288–1295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Heins, B., and Beato, M., 1981, Hormonal control of uteroglobin secretion and preuteroglobin mRNA content in rabbit endometrium, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 21: 139–148.Google Scholar
  86. Hochner-Celniker, R. D., Rop, M., Eldor, A., Segal, S., Polti, Z., Fuks, Z., and Vodlavsky, I., 1984, Growth characteristics of human first trimester decidual cells cultured in serum-free medium: Production of prolactin, prostaglandins and fibronectin, Biol. Reprod. 31: 827–836.Google Scholar
  87. Horton, M. J., and Szego, C. M., 1984, Chromatin proteins of rat preputial-gland: Acute changes in response to estrogen, Int. J. Biochem. 16: 447–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Horwitz, K. B., and McGuire, W. L., 1978a, Actinomyocin D prevents nuclear processing of estrogen receptor, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 6319–6322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Horwitz, K. B., and McGuire, W. L., 1978b, Nuclear mechanisms of estrogen action: Effects of estradiol and anti-estrogens on estrogen receptors in nuclear processing, J. Biol. Chem. 253: 8185–8191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Horwitz, K. B., and McGuire, W. L., 1980, Nuclear estrogen receptors. Effects of inhibitors on processing and steady state levels, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 9699–9705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Horwitz, K. B., Wei, L., Selacek, S. M., and D’Arville, C. N., 1985, Progestin action and progesterone receptor structure in human breast cancer: A review, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 41: 249–316.Google Scholar
  92. Hryb, D. J., Khan, M. S., Romas, N. A., and Rosner, W., 1986, Specific binding of human corticosteroid-binding globulin to cell membranes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83: 3253–56.Google Scholar
  93. Hseuh, A. J. W., Peck, E. J., Jr., and Clark, J. H., 1976, Control of uterine estrogen receptor levels by progesterone, Endocrinology 98: 438–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Huhtala, M. L., Kalkkinen, N., Palomaki, P., Julkunen, M., Bohn, H., and Seppala, M., 1986, XIV Annual Meeting of International Society for Oncodevelopment, Biol. Med. Abstr. 96.Google Scholar
  95. Huhtala, M. L., Seppala, M., Narvanen, A., Palomaki, P., Julkunen, M., and Bohn, H., 1987, Amino acid sequence homology between human placental protein 14 and (3-lactoglobulins from various species, Endocrinology 120: 2620–2622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Imakawa, K., Anthony, R. V., Niwano, Y., Hansen, T., Kazemi, M., Polites, H. G., Marotti, K. R., and Roberts, R. M., 1987, Ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1), a polypeptide implicated in mediating maternal recognition of pregnancy in sheep, is an interferon of the alpha class, J. Cell Biol. 105: 11a.Google Scholar
  97. Isomaa, V., Isotalo, H., Orava, M., Torkkeli, T., and Janne, O., 1979, Changes in cytosol and nuclear progesterone receptor concentrations in the rabbit uterus and their relation to induction of progesterone-related uteroglobin, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 88: 1237–1304.Google Scholar
  98. Isotalo, H., 1983, Regulation of uteroglobin synthesis and conservation of progesterone and estrogen receptors in immature rabbit uterus during prolonged progesterone treatment, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 115: 1015–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Jacobs, M. H., and Lyttle, C. R., 1987, Uterine media proteins in the rat during gestation, Biol. Reprod. 36: 157–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jakesz, R., Kasid, A., Greene, G., and Lippman, M. E., 1983, Characteristics of different cytoplasmic and nuclear estrogen receptors appearing with continuous hormonal exposure, J. Biol. Chem. 258: 11807–11813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Jensen, E. V., 1979, Interaction of steroid hormones with the nucleus, Pharmacol. Rev. 30: 477–491.Google Scholar
  102. Jensen, E. V., Suzuki, T., Kawashima, T., Stumpf, W. E., Jungblut, P. W., and DeSombre, E., 1968, A two-step mechanism for the interaction of estradiol with rat uterus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 59: 632–638.Google Scholar
  103. Joshi, S. G., 1983, A progestagen-associated protein of the human endometrium: Basic studies and potential clinical applications, J. Steroid Biochem. 19: 751–757.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Joshi, S. G., 1987, Progestin-dependent human endometrial protein: A marker for monitoring human endometrial function, in: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Uterus ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 167–186.Google Scholar
  105. Joshi, S. G., Ebert, K. M., and Smith, R. A., 1980, Properties of the progestagen-dependent protein of the human endometrium, J. Reprod. Fértil. 59: 287–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Joshi, S. G., Rao, R., Henriques, E. E., Raiker, R. S., and Gordon, M., 1986, Luteal phase concentrations of a progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PEP) in the serum of cycling women with adequate or inadequate endometrium, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 65: 1247–1249.Google Scholar
  107. Jost, J., Seldran, M., and Geiser, M., 1984, Preferential binding of the estrogen-receptor complex to a region containing the estrogen-dependent hypomethylation site preceding the chicken vitellogenin II gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 81: 429–433.Google Scholar
  108. Jost, J., Geiser, M., and Seldran, M., 1985, Specific modulation of the transcription of cloned avian vitellogenin II gene by estradiol-receptor complex in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 82: 988–991.Google Scholar
  109. Julkunen, M., Apter, D., Seppala, M., Stenman, U. H., and Bohn, H., 1986a, Serum levels of placental protein 14 reflect ovulation in nonconceptional menstrual cycles, Fértil. Steril. 45: 47–50.Google Scholar
  110. Julkunen, M., Raikar, R. S., Joshi, S. G., Bohn, H., and Seppala, M., 1986b, Placental protein 14 and progestagen-dependent endometrial protein are immunologically indistinguishable, Hum. Reprod. 1: 7–8.Google Scholar
  111. Julkunen, M., Wahlstrom, T., and Seppala, M., 1986c, Human fallopian tube contains placental protein 14, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154: 1076–1079.Google Scholar
  112. Karin, M., Eberhardt, N. L., Mellon, S. H., Malich, N., Richards, R. I., Slater, E. P., Barta, A., Martial, J. A., Baxter, J. D., and Cathala, G., 1984a, Expression and hormonal regulation of the rat growth hormone gene in transfected mouse L cells, DNA 3: 147–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Karin, M., Haslinger, A., Holtgreve, H., Richards, R. I., Krauter, P., Westphal, H. M., and Beato, M., 1984b, Characterization of DNA sequences through which cadmium and glucocorticoid hormones induce human metallothionein-IIA gene, Nature 308: 513–519.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kasid, A., Huff, K., Greene, G. L., and Lippman, M. E., 1984, A novel nuclear form of estradiol receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, Science 225: 1162–1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Katzenellenbogen, B. S., 1980, Dynamics of steroid hormone receptor action, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 42: 17–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kaye, A. M., and Reiss, N., 1980, The uterine estrogen induced protein (IP): Purification, distribution and possible function, in: Steroid Induced Uterine Proteins ( M. Beato, ed.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  117. Kearns, M., and Lala, P. K., 1982, Bone marrow origin of decidual cell precursors in the pseudopregnant mouse uterus, J. Exp. Med. 155: 1537–1554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Keller, R. K., Socher, S. H., Krall, J. F., Chandra, T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1975, Fractionation of chick oviduct chromatin: IV. Association of protein kinase with transcriptionally active chromatin, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 66: 453–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Khan, M. S., Aden, D., and Rosner, W., 1984,, Human corticosteroid binding globulin is secreted by a hepatoma-derived cell line, J. Steroid Biochem. 20: 677–78.Google Scholar
  120. King, W. J., and Greene, G. L., 1984, Monoclonal antibodies localize oestrogen receptor in the nuclei of target cells, Nature 307: 745–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Kisalus, L. L., Nunley, W. C., and Herr, J. C., 1987, Protein synthesis and secretion in human decidua of early pregnancy, Biol. Reprod. 36: 785–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Kneifel, M. A., Leytus, S. P., Fletcher, E., Weber, T., Mangel, W. F., and Katzenellenbogen, B. S., 1982, Uterine plasminogen activator activity: Modulation by steroid hormones, Endocrinology 111: 493–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Knobil, E., 1980, The neuroendocrine control of the menstrual cycle, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 36: 53–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Koistinen, R., Kalkkinen, N., Huhtala, M. L., Seppala, M., Bohn, H., and Rutanen, E. M., 1986, Placental protein 12 is a decidual protein that binds somatomedin and has identical N-terminal amino acid sequence with somatomedin-binding protein from human amniotic fluid, Endocrinology 118: 1375–1378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Komm, B. S., Keeping, H. S., Sabogal, G., and Lyttle, C. R., 1985, Comparison of media proteins from ovariectomized rat uteri following estrogen treatment, Biol. Reprod. 32: 443–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Komm, B. S., Rusling, D. J., and Lyttle, C. R., 1986, Estrogen regulation of protein synthesis in the immature rat uterus: The analysis of proteins released into the medium during in vitro incubation, Endocrinology 118: 2411–2416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kon, O. L., and Spelsberg, T. C., 1982, Nuclear binding of estrogen receptor complex: Receptor specific nuclear acceptor sites, Endocrinology 111: 1925–1934.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Krishnan, R. S., and Daniel, J. C., Jr., 1967, “Blastokinin”: Inducer and regulator of blastocyst development in the rabbit uterus, Science 158: 490–492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kuhn, R. W., Green, A. L., Raymoure, W. J., and Siiteri, P. K., 1986, Immunocytochemical localization of corticosteroid-binding globulin in rat tissues, J. Endocrinol. 108: 31–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lai, E. C., Riser, M. E., and O’Malley, B. W., 1983, Regulated expression of the chicken ovalbumin gene in a human estrogen-responsive cell line, J. Biol. Chem. 258: 12693–12701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Leavitt, W. W., 1985a, Progesterone regulation of nuclear estrogen receptors: Evidence for a receptor regulatory factor, in: Molecular Mechanism of Steroid Hormone Action ( V. K. Moudgil, ed.), Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 437–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Leavitt, W. W., 1985b, Hormonal regulation of myometrial estrogen, progesterone and oxytocin receptors in the pregnant and pseudopregnant hamster, Endocrinology 116: 1079–1084.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Leavitt, W. W., 1985c, Gene regulation by progesterone, in: Handbook on Receptor Research ( F. Auricchio, ed.), Field Educational Italia Acta Medica, Rome, pp. 179–209.Google Scholar
  134. Leavitt, W. W., and Okulicz, W. C., 1985a, Occupied and unoccupied estrogen receptor during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, Am. J. Physiol. 249: E589 - E594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Leavitt, W. W., and Okulicz, W. C., 1985b, Progesterone control of nuclear estrogen receptor: Demonstration in hamster uterus during the estrous cycle and pseudopregnancy using a new exchange assay, J. Steroid Biochem. 22: 583–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Leavitt, W. W., and Takeda, A., 1986, Hormonal regulation of estrogen and progesterone receptors in hamster decidual cells, Biol. Reprod. 35: 475–484.Google Scholar
  137. Leavitt, W. W., Toft, D. O., Strott, C. A., and O’Malley, B. W., 1974, A specific progesterone receptor in the hamster uterus: Physiologic properties and regulation during the estrous cycle, Endocrinology 94: 1041–1053.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Leavitt, W. W., Chen, T. J., Allen, T. C., and Johnston, J. O., 1977, Regulation of progesterone receptor formation by estrogen action, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 286: 210–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Leavitt, W. W., Chen, T. J., Do, Y. S., Carlton, B. D., and Allen, T. C., 1978, Biology of progesterone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action, Volume 2, ( B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 157–188.Google Scholar
  140. Leavitt, W. W., Chen, T. J., and Evans, R. W., 1979, Regulation and function of estrogen and progesterone receptor systems, in: Steroid Hormone Receptor Systems ( W. W. Leavitt and J. H. Clark, eds.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 197–222.Google Scholar
  141. Leavitt, W. W., MacDonald, R. G., and Okulicz, W. C., 1983, Hormonal regulation of estrogen and progesterone receptor systems, in: Biochemical actions of Hormones, Volume 10 ( G. Litwack, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 323–356.Google Scholar
  142. Leavitt, W. W., MacDonald, R. C., and Shwaery, G. T., 1985a, Characterization of deciduoma marker proteins in hamster uterus: Detection in decidual cell cultures, Biol. Reprod. 32: 631–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Leavitt, W. W., Okulicz, W. C., McCracken, J. A., Schramm, W., and Robidoux, W. F., 1985b, Rapid recovery of nuclear estrogen receptor and oxytocin receptor in the ovine uterus following progesterone withdrawal, J. Steroid Biochem. 22: 687–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Leavitt, W. W., Takeda, A., and MacDonald, R. G., 1986, Progesterone regulation of protein synthesis and steroid receptor levels in decidual cells, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 476: 136–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Leavitt, W. W., Rundle, S., Thompson, K., Selcer, K. W., and Gray, G. O., 1987, Decidual cell function: Evidence for a role in the regulation of serum CBG and a 60Kda protein during early pregnancy in the hamster, in: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Uterus ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 187–205.Google Scholar
  146. Lejeune, B., Lecocq, R., Lamy, F., and Leroy, F., 1982, Changes in the pattern of endometrial protein synthesis during decidualization in the rat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 66: 519–523.Google Scholar
  147. Lejeune, B., Lamy, F., Lecocq, R., Deschacht, J., and Leroy, F., 1985, Patterns of protein synthesis in endometrial tissues from ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol and progesterone, J. Reprod. Fertil. 73: 223–228.Google Scholar
  148. Libby, P. R., 1972, Histone acetylation and hormone action: Early effects of oestradiol-17(3 on histone acetylation in rat uterus, Biochem. J. 130: 663–669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Lin, S. -Y., and Riggs, A. D., 1975, The general affinity of lac repressor for E. coli DNA: Implications for gene regulation in procaryotes and eucaryotes, Cell 4: 107–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Logeat, F., VuHai, M. T., and Milgrom, E., 1981, Antibodies to rabbit progesterone receptor: Crossreaction with human receptor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78: 1426–1430.Google Scholar
  151. Logeat, F., VuHai, M. T., Fournier, A., Legrain, P., Buttin, C., and Milgrom, E., 1983, Monoclonal antibodies to rabbit progesterone receptor: Crossreaction with other mammalian progesterone receptors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 80: 6456–6460.Google Scholar
  152. Logeat, F., LeCunff, M., Pamphile, P., and Milgrom, E., 1985a, The nuclear-bound form of the progesterone receptor is generated through a hormone-dependent phosphorylation, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 131: 421–428.Google Scholar
  153. Logeat, F., Pamphile, R., Loosfelt, H., Jolivet, A., Fournier, A., and Milgrom, E., 1985b, One-step immu-noaffmity purification of active progesterone receptor. Further evidence in favor of the existence of a single steroid-binding subunit, Biochemistry 24: 1029–1037.Google Scholar
  154. Lombardero, M., and Nieto, A., 1981, Glucocorticoid and developmental regulation of uteroglobin synthesis in rabbit lung, Biochem. J. 200: 487–498.Google Scholar
  155. Loosfelt, H., Fridlansky, F., Atger, M., and Milgrom, E., 1981a, A possible non-transcriptional effect of progesterone, J. Steroid Biochem. 15: 107–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Loosfelt, H., Fridlansky, F., Savouret, J. -F., Atger, M., and Milgrom, E., 1981b, Mechanism of action of progesterone in the rabbit endometrium: Induction of uteroglobin and its messenger RNA, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 3465–3471.Google Scholar
  157. Loosfelt, H., Logeat, F., VuHai, M. T., and Milgrom, E., 1984, The rabbit progesterone receptor. Evidence for a single steroid-binding subunit and characterization of receptor mRNA, J. Biol. Chem. 259: 14196–14201.Google Scholar
  158. Loosfelt, H., Atger, M., Misrahi, M., Guischon-Mantel, A., Meriel, C., Logeat, F., Benarous, R., and Milgrom, E., 1986, Cloning and sequence analysis of rabbit progesterone-receptor complementary DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83: 9045–9049.Google Scholar
  159. Lyttle, C. R., and DeSombre, E. R., 1979, Uterine peroxidase as a marker for estrogen action, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 74: 3162–3166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Lyttle, C. R., Wheeler, C., and Komm, B. S., 1987, Hormonal regulation of rat uterine secretory protein synthesis, in: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Uterus ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 119–136.Google Scholar
  161. MacDonald, R. G., Okulicz, W. C., and Leavitt, W. W., 1982, Progesterone-induced inactivation of nuclear estrogen receptor in hamster uterus is mediated by acid phosphatase, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 104: 570–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. MacDonald, R. G., Morency, K. O., and Leavitt, W. W., 1983a, Progesterone modulation of specific protein synthesis in the decidualized hamster uterus, Biol. Reprod. 28: 753–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. MacDonald, R. G., Rosenberg, S. P., and Leavitt, W. W., 1983b, Localization of estrogen receptor-regulatory factor in the uterine nucleus, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 32: 301–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. MacLaughlin, D. T., Santoro, N. F., Bauer, H. H., Lawrence, D., and Richardson, G. S., 1986, Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of endometrial protein in human uterine fluids: Qualitative and quantitative analysis, Biol. Reprod. 34: 579–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. MacLaughlin, D. T., Richardson, G. S., Santoro, N. F., Hargraves, A. A., and Bauer, H. H., 1987, Analysis of proteins secreted by the human endometrium in vivo and in vitro, in: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Uterus ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 151–165.Google Scholar
  166. Martin, B. R., 1987, Metabolic Regulation: A Molecular Approach, Blackwell Scientific, Palo Alto, CA.Google Scholar
  167. Martin, L., Finn, C. A., and Trinder, G., 1983, Hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the mouse uterus after oestrogen treatment. An autoradiographic study, J. Endocrinol. 56: 133–144.Google Scholar
  168. Maurer, R. A., 1985, Selective binding of the estradiol receptor to a region at least one kilobase upstream from the rat prolactin gene, DNA 4: 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Maxwell, B. L., McDonnell, D. P., Conneely, O. M., Schulz, T. Z., Greene, G. L., and O’Malley, B. W., CELL BIOLOGY OF 1987, Structural organization and regulation of the chicken estrogen receptor, Mol. Endocrinol 1:25–35. ENDOMETRIUMGoogle Scholar
  170. McClellan, M. C., West, N. B., Tacha, D. E., Greene, G. L., and Brenner, R. M., 1984, Immunocytochemical localization of estrogen receptors in the macaque reproductive tract with monoclonal antiestrophilins, Endocrinology 114: 2002–2014.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. McCormack, S. A., and Glasser, S. R., 1980, Differential response of individual uterine cell types from immature rats treated with estradiol, Endocrinology 106: 1634–1649.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Midgley, A. R., Jr., Gay, V. L., Keyes, P. L., and Hunter, J. S., 1973, Human reproductive endocrin-ology, in: Human Reproduction ( E. S. E. Hafez and T. N. Evans, eds.), Harper & Row, New York, pp. 201–236.Google Scholar
  173. Migliaccio, A., Lastoria, S., Moncharmont, B., Rotondi, A., and Auricchio, F., 1982, Phosphorylation of calf uterus, estradiol receptor by endogenous Ca+ +-stimulated kinase activating the hormone binding of the receptor, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 109: 1002–1010.Google Scholar
  174. Migliaccio, A., Rotondi, A., and Auricchio, F., 1984, Calmodulin-stimulated phosphorylation of 17p-estradiol receptor on tyrosine, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 81: 5921–5925.Google Scholar
  175. Milgrom, E., Luu Thi, M. T., Atger, M., and Baulieu, E. E., 1973, Mechanisms regulating the concentration and the conformation of progesterone receptor(s) in the uterus, J. Biol. Chem. 248: 6366–6374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Milgrom, E., 1981, Activation of steroid receptor complexes, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Volume 8 ( G. Litwack, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 465–492.Google Scholar
  177. Monsma, F. J., Jr., Katzenellenbogen, B. S., Miller, M. A., Ziegler, Y. S., and Katzenellenbogen, J. A., 1984, Characterization of the estrogen receptor and its dynamics in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells using a covalently attaching antiestrogen, Endocrinology 115: 143–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Moudgil, V. K., and Eessalu, T. E., 1980, Activation of estradiol-receptor complex by ATP in vitro, FEBS Lett. 122: 189–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Mukku, V. R., and Stancel, G. M., 1985, Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by estrogen, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 9820–9824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Muller, H., and Beato, M., 1980, RNA synthesis in rabbit endometrial nuclei. Hormonal regulation of transcription of the uteroglobin gene, Eur. J. Biochem. 112: 235–245.Google Scholar
  181. Mulvihill, E. R., and Palmiter, R. D., 1977, Relationship of nuclear estrogen receptor levels to induction of ovalbumin and conalbumin mRNA in chick oviduct, J. Biol. Chem. 252: 2060–2068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Mulvihill, E. R., and Palmiter, R. D., 1980, Relationship of nuclear progesterone receptors to induction of ovalbumin and conalbumin mRNA in chick oviduct, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 2085–2092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Mulvihill, E. R., LePennec, J. P., and Chambon, P., 1982, Chicken oviduct progesterone receptor: Location of specific regions of high-affinity binding in cloned DNA fragments of hormone-responsive genes, Cell 28: 621–632.Google Scholar
  184. Murphy, L. J., Murphy, L. C., and Friesen, H. G., 1987a, Estrogen induction of N-myc and c-myc proto-oncogene expression in the rat uterus, Endocrinology 120: 1882–1888.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Murphy, L. J., Murphy, L. C., and Friesen, H. C., 1987b, Estrogen induces insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in the rat uterus, Mol. Endocrinol. 1: 445–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Murray, M. K., Verhage, H. G., Buhi, W. C., and Jaffe, R. C., 1985, The detection and purification of a cat uterine secretory protein that is estrogen dependent ( CUPED ), Biol. Reprod. 32: 1219–1225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Neulen, J., Beato, M., and Beier, H. M., 1982, Cytosol and nuclear progesterone-receptor concentrations in the rabbit endometrium during early pseudopregnancy under different treatments with estradiol and progesterone, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 25: 183–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Nieder, G. L., Weitlauf, H. M., and Suda-Hartman, M., 1987, Synthesis and secretion of stage-specific proteins by peri-implantation mouse embryos, Biol. Reprod. 36: 687–699.Google Scholar
  189. Norman, A. W., and Litwack, G., 1987, Hormones, Academic Press, Orlando, FL.Google Scholar
  190. Notides, A. C., Lerner, N., and Hamilton, D. E., 1981, Positive cooperativity of the estrogen receptor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78: 4926–4930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Notides, A. C., Susson, S., and Callison, S., 1985, An allosteric regulatory mechanism for estrogen receptor activation, in: Molecular Mechanisms of Steroid Hormone Action ( V. K. Moudgil, ed.), Walter de Gruyter, New York, pp. 173–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Noyes, R. W., Hertig, A. T., and Rock, J., 1950, Dating the endometrial biopsy, Fertil. Steril. 1: 3–25.Google Scholar
  193. O’Farrell, P. H., 1975, High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 4007–4021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Okulicz, W. C., Evans, R. W., and Leavitt, W. W., 1981a, Progesterone regulation of the occupied form of nuclear estrogen receptor, Science 213: 1503–1505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Okulicz, W. C., Evans, R. W., and Leavitt, W. W., 1981b, Progesterone regulation of estrogen receptor in the rat uterus. A primary inhibitory influence on the nuclear fraction, Steroids 37: 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Okulicz, W. C., MacDonald, R. G., and Leavitt, W. W., 1981c, Progesterone-induced estrogen receptor-regulatory factor in hamster uterine nuclei: Preliminary characterization in a cell-free system, Endocrinology 109: 2273–2275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Okulicz, W. C., Boomsma, R. A., MacDonald, R. G., and Leavitt, W. W., 1983, Conditions for the measurement of nuclear estrogen receptor at low temperature, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 757: 128–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. O’Malley, B. W., and Means, A. R., 1974, Female steroid hormones and target cell nuclei, Science 183: 610–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. O’Malley, B. W., Roop, D. R., Lai, E. D., Nordstrom, J. L., Catterall, J. F., Swaneck, G. E., Colbert, D. A., Tsai, M. J., Dugaiczyk, A., and Woo, S. L. C., 1979, The ovalbumin gene: Organization, structure, transcription and regulation, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 35: 1–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. O’Malley, B. W., Tsai, M. J., and Schrader, W. T., 1983, Structural considerations for the action of steroid hormones in eucaryotic cells, in: Steroid Hormone Receptors ( H. Ericksson and J. Gustafsson, eds.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 307–328.Google Scholar
  201. Padykula, H. A., Coles, L. G., McCracken, J. A., King, N. W., Jr., Longcope, C., and Kaiserman-Abramof, I. R., 1984, A zonal pattern of cell proliferation and differentiation in the rhesus endometrium during the estrogen surge, Biol. Reprod. 32: 1103–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Pasqualini, J. R., Cosquer-Clavreul, C., Vidali, G., and Allfrey, V. G., 1981, Effects of estradiol on the acetylation of histones in the fetal uterus of the guinea pig, Biol. Reprod. 25: 1035–1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Payvar, F., DeFranco, D. G., Firestone, L., Edgar, B., Wrange, D., Okret, S., Gustafsson, J. -A., and Yamamoto, K. R., 1983, Sequence-specific binding of glucocorticoid receptor to MMTV DNA at sites within and upstream of the transcribed region, Cell 35: 381–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Perrot-Applanat, M., Racadot, O., and Milgrom, E., 1984, Specific localization of plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin immunoreactivity in pituitary corticotrophs, Endocrinology 115: 559–569.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Puca, G. A., Nola, E., Hibner, V., Cicala, G., and Sica, V., 1975, Interaction of the estradiol receptor from calf uterus with its nuclear acceptor sites, J. Biol. Chem. 250: 6452–6459.Google Scholar
  206. Quarmby, V. E., and Korach, K. S., 1984, Differential regulation of protein synthesis by estradiol in uterine component tissues, Endocrinology 115: 687–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Rahman, S. S., Billiar, R. B., and Little, B., 1981, Studies on the decline of uteroglobin synthesis and secretion in the rabbit uterus during the continued presence of circulating progesterone, Endocrinology 108: 2222–2230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Reiss, N. A., and Kaye, A. M., 1981, Identification of the major component of the oestrogen-induced protein of the rat uterus as the BB isozyme of creatine kinase, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 5741–5747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Renkawitz, R., Schutz, G., von der Ahe, D., and Beato, M., 1984, Sequences in the promoter region of the chicken lysozyme gene required for steroid regulation and receptor binding, Cell 37: 503–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Ricketts, A. P., Hagensee, M., and Bullock, D. W., 1983, Characterization in primary monolayer culture of separated cell types from rabbit endometrium, J. Reprod. Fertil. 67: 151–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Robel, P., Martel, R., and Baulieu, E. E., 1981, Estradiol and progesterone receptors in human endometrium, in: Biochemical Actions of Hormones, Volume 8 ( G. Litwack, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 493–514.Google Scholar
  212. Roberts, R. M., Raub, T. J., and Bazer, F. W., 1986, Role of uteroferrin in transplacental iron transport in the pig, Fed. Proc. 45: 2513–2518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Roberts, R. M., Murray, M. K., Burke, M. G., Ketcham, C. M., and Bazer, F. W., 1987, Hormonal control and function of secretory proteins, in: Cell and Molecular Biology of the Uterus ( W. W. Leavitt, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 137–150.Google Scholar
  214. Rogers, S., Wells, R., and Rechsteiner, M., 1986, Amino acid sequences common to rapidly degraded proteins: The PEST hypothesis, Science 234: 364–368.Google Scholar
  215. Ross, P., Jr., and Ruh, T. S., 1984, Binding of the estradiol-receptor complex to reconstituted nucleoacidic protein from calf uterus, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 782: 18–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Ruh, T. S., and Spelsberg, T. C., 1983, Acceptor sites for the oestrogen receptor in hen oviduct chromatin, Biochem. J. 210: 905–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Rutanen, E. M., Koistinen, R., Sjoberg, J., Julkunen, M., Wahlstrom, T., Bohn, H., and Seppala, M., 1986, Synthesis of placental protein 12 by human endometrium, Endocrinology 118: 1067–1071.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Sakai, D., and Gorski, J., 1984, Estrogen receptor transformation to a high-affinity state without subunit-subunit interactions, J. Biochem. 23: 3541–3547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Sananes, N., Weiller, S., Baulieu, E. E., and Le Goascogne, C., 1978, In vitro decidualization of rat endometrial cells, Endocrinology 103: 86–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Savouret, J. -F., and Milgrom, E., 1983, Uteroglobin: A model for the study of progesterone action in mammals, DNA 2: 99–107.Google Scholar
  221. Savouret, J. -F., Loosfelt, H., Atger, M., and Milgrom, E., 1980, Differential hormonal control of a messenger RNA in two tissues: Uteroglobin mRNA in the lung and the endometrium, J. Biol. Chem. 255: 4131–4136.Google Scholar
  222. Scatchard, G., 1949, The attractions of proteins for small molecules and ions, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 51: 660–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Schimke, R. T., 1975, Methods for analysis of enzyme synthesis and degradation in animal tissues, in: Methods in Enzymology, Volume XL ( B. W. O’Malley and J. G. Hardman, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 241–266.Google Scholar
  224. Schrader, W. T., and O’Malley, B. W., 1978, Molecular structure and analysis of progesterone receptors, in: Receptors and Hormone Action, Volume 2 ( B. W. O’Malley and L. Birnbaumer, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 189–224.Google Scholar
  225. Schrader, W. T., Birnbaumer, M. E., Hughes, M. R., Weigel, N. L., Grody, W. W., and O’Malley, B. W., 1981, Studies on the structure and function of the chicken progesterone receptor, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 37: 583–633.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Seal, U. S., and Doe, R. P., 1965, Vertebrate distribution of corticosteroid binding globulin and some endocrine effects on concentration, Steroids 5: 827–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Segal, S. J., Scher, W., and Koide, S. S., 1977, Estrogens, nucleic acids, and protein synthesis in uterine metabolism, in: Biology of the Uterus ( R. Wynn, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 139–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Selcer, K. W., and Leavitt, W. W., 1987, Hamster uterine tissue concentrates CBG during decidualization, in: Program of Annual Meeting of Endocrine Society, The Endocrine Society, Indianapolis, p. 105.Google Scholar
  229. Seppala, M., Koskimies, A. I., Tenhunen, A., Rutanen, E. M., Sjoberg, J., Koistinen, R., Jijlkunen, M., and Wahlstrom, T., 1985, Pregnancy proteins in seminal plasma, seminal vesicles, preovulatory follicular fluid and ovary, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 442: 212–226.Google Scholar
  230. Seppala, M., Huhtala, M. L., Julkunen, M., Koistinen, R., and Rutanen, E. M., 1987, Utprine proteins, nomenclature determined by biological action, Res. Reprod. 19: 2.Google Scholar
  231. Shelesnyak, M. C., 1986, A history of research on nidation, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 476: 5–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Shen, X. -Z., Tsai, M. -J., Bullock, D. W., and Woo, S. L. C., 1983, Hormonal regulation of rabbit uteroglobin gene transcription, Endocrinology 112: 871–876.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Sherman, M. R., and Stevens, J., 1984, Structure of mammalian steroid receptors: Evolving concepts and methodological developments, Physiol. Rev. 46: 83–105.Google Scholar
  234. Sica, V., Weisz, A., Petrillo, A., Armetta, I., and Puca, G. A., 1981, Assay of total estradiol receptor in tissue homogenate and tissue fractions by exchange with sodium thiocyanate at low-temperature, Biochemistry 20: 686–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Siiteri, P. K., Murai, J. T., Hammond, G. L., Nisker, J. A., Raymoure, W. J., and Kuhn, R. W., 1982, The serum transport of steroid hormones, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 38: 457–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Singh, R. K., Ruh, M. F., Butler, W. B., and Ruh, T. S., 1986, Acceptor sites on chromatin for receptor-bound by estrogen versus antiestrogen in antiestrogen-sensitive and-resistant MCF-7 cells, Endocrinology 118: 1087–1095.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Sirbasku, D. L. A., and Benson, R. H., 1979, Estrogen-inducible growth factors that may act as mediators (estromedins) of estrogen promoted tumor cell growth, in: Hormones and Cell Culture, Volume 6, Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, pp. 477–497.Google Scholar
  238. Sjoberg, J., Wahlstrom, T., and Seppala, M., 1984, Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in the human endometrium is dependent on the effect of progesterone, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 58: 359–362.Google Scholar
  239. Skafar, D. E., and Notides, A. C., 1985, Modulation of the estrogen receptor’s affinity for DNA by estradiol, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 12208–12215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Skafar, D. F., and Seaver, S. S., 1985, Desensitization of the chick oviduct to estrogen: Mediation at different levels of gene expression, Endocrinology 116: 1755–1762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Snead, R., Day, L., Chandra, T., Mace, M., Jr., Bullock, D. W., and Woo, S. L. C., 1981, Mosaic structure and mRNA precursors of uteroglobin, a hormone-regulated mammalian gene, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 11911–11918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. Spelsberg, T. C., Littlefield, B. A., Seelke, R., Martin-Dani, G., Toyoda, H., Boyd-Leinen, P., Thrall, C., and Kon, O. L., 1983, Role of specific chromosomal proteins and DNA sequences in the nuclear binding sites for steroid receptors, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 39: 463–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. Strinden, S. T., and Shapiro, S. S., 1983, Progesterone-altered secretory proteins from cultured human endometrium, Endocrinology 112: 862–870.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Sullivan, D. A., Richardson, G. S., MacLaughlin, D. T., and Wira, C. R., 1984, Variations in the levels of secretory component in human uterine fluid during the menstrual cycle, J. Steroid Biochem. 20: 509–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Sullivan, W. P., Beito, T. G., Proper, J., Krco, C. J., and Toft, D. O., 1986, Preparation of monoclonal antibodies to the avian progesterone receptor, Endocrinology 119: 1549–1557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Surani, M. A. H., 1975, Hormonal regulation of proteins in the uterine secretion of ovariectomized rats and the implications for implantation and embryonic diapause, J. Reprod. Fertil. 43: 411–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Surani, M. A. H., 1976, Uterine luminal proteins at the time of implantation in rats, J. Reprod. Fertil. 48: 141–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Surani, M. A. H., 1977, Radiolabeled rat uterine luminal proteins and their regulation by oestradiol and progesterone, J. Reprod. Fertil. 50: 289–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Suske, G., Wenz, M., Cato, A. C. B., and Beato, M., 1983, The uteroglobin gene region: Hormonal regulation, repetitive elements and complete nucleotide sequence, Nucleic Acids Res. 11: 2257–2264.Google Scholar
  250. Takeda, A., and Leavitt, W. W., 1986, Progestin-induced down regulation of nuclear estrogen receptor in uterine decidual cells: Analysis of receptor synthesis and turnover by the density-shift method, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 135: 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Taylor, R. N., and Smith, R. G., 1981, Effects of highly purified estrogen receptors on gene transcription in isolated nuclei, Biochemistry 21: 1781–1787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Thomas, T., and Leung, B. S., 1984, Characterization of nuclear estradiol receptors released by micrococcal nuclease and deoxyribonuclease I, J. Steroid Biochem. 21: 35–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Torkkeli, T., 1980, Early changes in rabbit uterine progesterone receptor concentrations and uteroglobin synthesis after progesterone administration, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 97: 5598–5605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Toyoda, H., Seelke, R. W., Littlefield, B. A., and Spelsberg, T. C., 1985, Evidence for specific DNA sequences in the nuclear acceptor sites of the avian oviduct progesterone receptor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 82: 4722–4726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Tseng, L., and Gurpide, E., 1975, Induction of human endometrial estradiol dehydrogenase by progestins, Endocrinology 97: 825–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Tseng, L., and Gurpide, E., 1979, Stimulation of various 17(3-and 20a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities by progestins in human endometrium, Endocrinology 104: 1745–1748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Umapathysivam, K., and Jones, W. R., 1978, An investigation of decidual specific proteins in the rat, Int. J. Fertil. 23: 138–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Vladirmirsky, F., Chen, L., Amsterdam, A., Zor, U., and Lindner, H. R., 1977, Differentiation of decidual cells in cultures of rat endometrium, J. Reprod. Fertil. 49: 61–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. von der Ahe, D., Janich, S., Scheidereit, C., Renkawitz, R., Schutz, G., and Beato, M., 1985, Glucocorticoid and progesterone receptors bind to the same sites in two hormonally regulated promoters, Nature 313: 706–708.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. von der Ahe, D., Renoir, J. M., Buchou, T., Baulieu, E. E., and Beato, M., 1986, Receptors for glucocorticoid and progesterone recognize distinct features of a DNA regulatory element, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83: 2817–2821.Google Scholar
  261. Von Hippel, P. H., Bear, D. G., Morgan, W. D., and McSwiggen, J. A., 1984, Protein-nucleic acid interactions in transcriptions: A molecular analysis, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53: 389–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Walker, R., 1983, The Molecular Biology of Enzyme Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  263. Walters, M. R., 1985, Steroid hormone receptors in the nucleus, Endocrine Rev. 6: 512–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Walters, M. R., and Clark, J. H., 1978, Stoichiometric translocation of the rat uterine progesterone receptor, Endocrinology 103: 1952–1955.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Warembourg, M., Tranchant, O., Atger, M., and Milgrom, E., 1986, Uteroglobin messenger ribonucleic acid: Localization in rabbit uterus and lung by in situ hybridization, Endocrinology 119: 1632.Google Scholar
  266. Weiser, J. W., Do, Y. S., and Feldman, D., 1979, Synthesis and secretion of corticosteroid-binding globulin by rat liver. A source of heterogeneity of hepatic corticosteroid-binders, J. Clin. Invest. 63: 461–467.Google Scholar
  267. Welshons, W. V., Lieberman, M. E., and Gorski, J., 1984, Nuclear localization of unoccupied oestrogen receptors, Nature 307: 747–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Welshons, W. V., Krummel, B. M., and Gorski, J., 1985, Nuclear localization of unoccupied receptors for glucocorticoids, estrogens, and progesterone in GH3 cells, Endocrinology 117: 2140–2147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Wewer, U. M., Damjanov, A., Weiss, J., Liotta, L. A., and Damjanov, I., 1986, Mouse endometrial stromal cells produce basement-membrane components, Differentiation 32: 49–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Wheeler, C., Komm, B. S., and Lyttle, C. R., 1987, Estrogen regulation of protein synthesis in the immature rat uterus: The effects of progesterone on proteins released into the medium during in vitro incubations, Endocrinology 120: 919–923.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. White, R., Lees, J. A., Needham, M., Ham, J., and Parker, M., 1987, Structural organization and expression of the mouse estrogen receptor, Mol. Endocrinol. 1: 736–744.Google Scholar
  272. Whitehead, M. I., Townsend, P. T., Pryse-Davies, J., Ryder, T. A., and King, R. J. B., 1981, Effects of estrogens and progestins on the biochemistry and morphology of the postmenopausal endometrium, N. Engl. J. Med. 305: 1599–1605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Yamamoto, K. R., 1983, On steroid receptor regulation of gene expression and the evolution of hormonecontrolled gene networks, in: Steroid Hormone Receptors: Structure and Function ( H. Eriksson and J. A. Gustafsson, eds.), Elsevier, New York, pp. 285–306.Google Scholar
  274. Yamamoto, K. R., and Alberts, B. M., 1972, In vitro conversion of estradiol-receptor protein to its nuclear form: Dependence on hormone and DNA, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 69: 2105–2109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Yamamoto, K., and Alberts, B. M., 1976, Steroid receptors: Elements for modulation of eukaryotic transcription, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 43: 721–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Young, C. E., Smith, R. G., and Bullock, D. W., 1981, Uteroglobin mRNA and levels of nuclear progesterone receptor in endometrium, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 22: 105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Zava, D. T., Harrington, N. Y., and McGuire, W. L., 1976, Nuclear estradiol receptor in the adult rat uterus: A new exchange assay, Biochemistry 15: 4292–4297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Zwelling, L. A., Kerrigan, D., and Lippman, M. E., 1983, Protein-associated intercalator-induced DNA scission is enhanced by estrogen stimulation in human breast cancer cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 80: 6182–6186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendell W. Leavitt
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryTexas Tech University Health Sciences CenterLubbockUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyTexas Tech University Health Sciences CenterLubbockUSA

Personalised recommendations