Advertisement

Vascular Physiology of the Nonpregnant Uterus

  • Frank C. GreissJr.
  • James C. Rose

Abstract

One would expect that a proper appreciation of uterine vascular responses during pregnancy would be dependent on an understanding of those basic factors that control blood flow to the nonpregnant uterus. This is the logical approach, but that is not how it happened. Prior to 1950, observations of both nonpregnant and pregnant uterine vascular changes consisted of descriptive morphology (Ramsey, 1949) and descriptive physiology. The latter was limited by the primitive technologies then available. In his classic studies, Markee (1932) described cyclic changes in endometrium transplanted into the eyes of rabbits. These correlated with the ovarian cycle. He also described the marked vasodilatation that followed estrogen stimulation. Similarly, MacLeod and Reynolds (1938) observed the “red hyperemia” that occurred in nonpregnant uteri after estrogen injection. Few other vascular responses were reported in nonpregnant animals.

Keywords

Estrous Cycle Uterine Artery Uterine Blood Flow Catechol Estrogen Vascular Physiology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, S. G., and Hackshaw, B. T., 1974, The effect of estrogen on uterine blood flow and its distribution in nonpregnant ewes, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119: 589–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, S. G., Hackshaw, B. T., Still, J. G., and Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1977, Uterine blood flow and its distribution after chronic estrogen and progesterone administration, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 127: 138–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardrum, B., Ottesen, B., and Fahrenkrug, J., 1986, Peptides PHI and VIP: Comparison between vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle effect in rabbit uterus, Am. J. Physiol. 251: E48–E51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barton, M. D., Killam, A. P., and Meschia, G., 1974, Response of ovine uterine blood flow to epinephrine and norepinephrine, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 145: 996–1003.Google Scholar
  5. Bell, C., 1972, Autonomic nervous control of reproduction: Circulatory and other factors, Pharmacol. Rev. 24: 657–736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carter, A. M., Einer-Jensen, N., Fahrenkrug, J., and Ottesen, B., 1981, Increased myometrial blood flow evoked by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the nonpregnant goat, J. Physiol. ( Lond. ) 310: 471–480.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, J. H., Hsueh, A. J. W., and Peck, E. J., Jr., 1977, Regulation of estrogen receptor replenishment by progesterone, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 286: 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, K. E., Van Orden, D. E., Meldrum, D. R., Brody, M. J., and Brinkman, C. R. Ill, 1975, Effect of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor meclofenamate on estrogen-induced increases in uterine blood flow in sheep, Prostaglandins 5: 25–29.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, K. E., Stys, S. J., Austin, J. E., and Goiter, M., 1980a, Prostaglandins: Mediator of estrogen-induced increases in uterine blood flow, Proc. Soc. Gynecol. Invest. 27: 126.Google Scholar
  10. Clark, K. E., Stys, S. J., and Mills, E. G., 1980b, Histamine and serotonin: Effects on uterine blood flow, Proc. Soc. Gynecol. Invest. 27: 56.Google Scholar
  11. Clark, K. E., Mills, E. G., Otte, T. E., and Stys, S. J., 1980c, Effect of serotonin on uterine blood flow in pregnant and nonpregnant sheep, Life Sci. 27: 2655–2661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, K. E., Austin, J. E., and Stys, S. J., 1981a, Effect of bisenoic prostaglandins on the uterine vasculature 85Google Scholar
  13. of the nonpregnant sheep, Prostaglandins 22:333–348.Google Scholar
  14. Clark, K. E., Mills, E. G., Stys, S. J., and Seeds, A. E., 1981b, Effects of vasoactive polypeptides on the uterine vasculature, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 139: 182–188.Google Scholar
  15. Clark, K. E., Mills, E. G., and Harrington, D. J., 1984, Effect of histamine receptor agonists and antagonists on the uterine vasculature, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 175: 476–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Farley, D. B., Ford, S. P., Maclndoe, J. H., and Van Orden, D. E., 1986, Effect of nafoxidine on uterine vasculature in vivo and in vitro, Proc. Soc. Gynecol. Invest. 33: 158.Google Scholar
  17. Ford, S. P., 1982, Control of uterine and ovarian blood flow throughout the estrous cycle and pregnancy of ewes, sows, and cows, J. Anim. Sci. 55 (Suppl. 2): 32–42.Google Scholar
  18. Ford, S. P., and Christenson, R. K., 1979. Blood flow to uteri of sows during estrous cycle and early pregnancy: Local effect of the conceptus on the uterine blood supply, Biol. Reprod. 21: 617–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ford, S. P., and Reynolds, L. P., 1981, Interaction of estradiol-17ß and adrenergic antagonists in controlling uterine arterial flow of cows, J. Anim. Sci. 53 (Suppl. 1): 317.Google Scholar
  20. Ford, S. P., Weber, L. J., and Stormshak, F., 1977a, Response of ovine uterine arteries to nerve stimulation after perfusions of prostaglandin F2a, norepinephrine or neurotransmitter antagonists, Endocrinology 101: 659–665.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ford, S. P., Weber, L. J., and Stormshak, F., 1977b, Role of estradiol-17ß and progesterone in regulating constriction of ovine uterine arteries, Biol. Reprod. 17: 480–488.Google Scholar
  22. Ford, S. P., Chenault, J. R., and Echternkamp, S. E., 1979, Uterine blood flow of cows during the oestrous cycle and early pregnancy: Effect of conceptus on the uterine blood supply, J. Reprod. Fertil. 56: 53–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ford, S. P., Reynolds, L. P., Farley, D. B., Bhatnagar, R. K., and Van Orden, D. E., 1984, Interaction of ovarian steroids and periarterial a r-adrenergic receptors in altering uterine blood flow during the estrous cycle of gilts, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150: 480–484.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ford, S. P., Van Orden, D. E., and Farley, D. B., 1986, Effect of cycloheximide on (catechol) estrogen uterine hyperemia, Proc. Soc. Gynecol. Invest. 33: 224.Google Scholar
  25. Garris, D. R., McConnaughey, M. M., and Dar, M. S., 1986, Estrogen modulation of uterine adrenergic-cholinergic interaction: Effects on vasoactivity and adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 239: 270–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1965, Effect of labor on uterine blood flow: Observations on gravid ewes, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 93: 917–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1966, Pressure-flow relationship in the gravid uterine vascular bed, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 96: 41–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1971, Differential reactivity of the myoendometrial and placental vasculatures: Vasodilatation, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 111: 611–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1972, Differential reactivity of the myoendometrial and placental vasculatures: Adrenergic responses, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 112: 20–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1978, Reactivities of the nongravid uterine vasculatures: Effects of norepinephrine, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131: 778–779.Google Scholar
  31. Greiss, F. C., Jr., and Anderson, S. G., 1969, Uterine vascular changes during the ovarian cycle, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol: 103–629–640.Google Scholar
  32. Greiss, F. C., Jr., and Anderson, S. G., 1970, Effect of ovarian hormones on the uterine vascular bed, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 107: 829–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Greiss, F. C., Jr., and Anderson, S. G., 1974, Pressure-flow relationship in the nonpregnant uterine vascular bed, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.. 118–763–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Greiss, F. C., Jr., and Gobble, F. L., Jr., 1967, Effect of sympathetic nerve stimulation on the uterine vascular bed, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 97: 962–967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Greiss, F. C., Jr., and Miller, H., 1971, Unilateral control of uterine blood flow in the ewe, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 111: 299–301.Google Scholar
  36. Greiss, F. C., Jr., and Van Wilkes, D., 1964, Effects of sympathomimetic drugs and angiotensin on the uterine vascular bed, Obstet. Gynecol 23: 925–930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Greiss, F. C., Jr., and Wagner, W. D., 1983, Glycosaminoglycans: Their distribution and potential vasoactive action in the nonpregnant and pregnant ovine uterus, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 145: 1041–1048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Greiss, F. C., Jr., Gobble, F. L., Jr., Anderson, S. G., and McGuirt, W. F., 1967a, Effect of parasympathetic nerve stimulation on the uterine vascular bed, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 99: 1067–1072.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Greiss, F. C., Jr., Gobble, F. L., Jr., Anderson, S. G., and McGuirt, W. F., 1967b, Effect of acetylcholine on the uterine vascular bed, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 99: 1073–1077.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Greiss, F. C., Jr., Anderson, S. G., and King, L. C., 1972, Uterine vascular bed: Effectives of acute hypoxia, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 113: 1057–1064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Greiss, F. C., Jr., Anderson, S. G., and Still, J. G., 1976, Uterine pressure-flow relationships during early gestation, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 126: 799–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Greiss, F. C., Jr., Rose, J. C., Kute, T. E., Kelly, R. T., and Winkler, L. S., 1986, Temporal and receptor correlates of the estrogen response in sheep, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 154: 831–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hedqvist, P., 1970, Control by prostaglandin E2 of sympathetic neurotransmission in the spleen, Life Sci. 9: 269–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hisaw, F. L., Jr., 1959, Comparative effectiveness of estrogens in fluid imbibition and growth of the rat uterus, Endocrinology 64: 276–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huckabee, W. E., Crenshaw, C., Curet, L. B., Mann, L., and Barron, D. H., 1970, The effect of exogenous oestrogen on the blood flow and oxygen consumption of the uterus of the nonpregnant ewe, Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 55: 16–24.Google Scholar
  46. Kadowitz, P. J., Sweet, C. S., and Brody, M. J., 1972, Enhancement of sympathetic neurotransmission by prostaglandin F2ot in the cutaneous vascular bed of the dog, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 18: 189–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kalsner, S., 1969, Steroid potentiation of responses to sympathomimetic amines in aortic strips, Br. J. Pharmacol. 36: 582–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Killam, A. P., Rosenfeld, C. R., Battaglia, F. C., Makowski, E. L., and Meschia, G., 1973, Effect of estrogens on the uterine blood flow of oophorectomized ewes, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 115: 1045–1057.Google Scholar
  49. Levine, M. G., Miodornik, M., and Clark, K. E., 1984, Uterine vascular effects of estetrol in nonpregnant ewes, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148: 735–738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. MacLeod, J., and Reynolds, S. R. M., 1938, Vascular, metabolic and motility relationships in the uterus after administration of oestrin, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 37: 666–676.Google Scholar
  51. Magness, R. R., and Rosenfeld, C. R., 1986, Systemic and uterine responses to a-adrenergic stimulation in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 897–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Markee, J. E., 1932, An analysis of the rhythmic vascular changes in the uterus of the rabbit, Am. J. Physiol. 100: 374–382.Google Scholar
  53. Marshall, K., and Senior, J., 1986, The effect of mepyramine and ranitidine on the oestrogen and anti-oestrogen stimulated rat uterus, Br. J. Pharmacol. 89: 251–256.Google Scholar
  54. McKercher, T. C., Van Orden, L. S. III, Bhatnagar, R. K., and Burke, J. P., 1973, Estrogen-induced biogenic amine reduction in rat uterus, J. Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 185: 514–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Mueller, G. C., Gorski, J., and Aizawa, Y., 1960, The role of protein synthesis in early estrogen action, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 47: 164–169.Google Scholar
  56. Naden, R. P., and Rosenfeld, C. R., 1985a, Role of a-receptors in estrogen-induced vasodilation in nonpregnant sheep, Am. J. Physiol. 248: H339–H344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Naden, R. P., and Rosenfeld, C. R., 1985b, Systemic and uterine responsiveness to angiotensin II and norepinephrine in estrogen-treated nonpregnant sheep, Am. J. Physiol 153: 417–425.Google Scholar
  58. Novy, M. J., Thomas, C. L., and Lees, M. H., 1975, Uterine contractility and regional blood flow responses to oxytocin and prostaglandin E2 in pregnant rhesus monkeys, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 122: 419–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ottesen, B., and Fahrenkrug, J., 1981, Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide ( VIP) upon myometrial blood flow in nonpregnant rabbit, Acta Physiol Scand. 112: 195–201.Google Scholar
  60. Parisi, V. M., Rankin, J. H. G., Phernetton, T. M., and Makowski, E. L., 1984, The effect of a leukotriene receptor antagonist, FPL 55712, on estrogen-induced uterine hyperemia in the nonpregnant rabbit, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 148: 365–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Penney, L. L., Frederick, F. J., and Parker, G. W., 1981, 17(3-Estradio 1 stimulation of uterine blood flow in oophorectomized rabbits with complete inhibition of uterine ribonucleic acid synthesis, Endocrinology 109: 1672–1676.Google Scholar
  62. Ramsey, E. M., 1949, The vascular pattern of the endometrium of the pregnant rhesus monkey Macaca mulatta, Carnegie Contrib. Embryol. 33: 113–147.Google Scholar
  63. Resnik, R., and Brink, G. W., 1978, Effects of prostaglandins E1, E2, F2ot on uterine blood flow in nonpregnant sheep, Am. J. Physiol 234: H557–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Resnik, R., and Brink, G. W., 1980, Uterine vascular response to prostacyclin in nonpregnant sheep, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 137: 267–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Resnik, R., Killam, A. P., Battaglia, F. C., Makowski, E. L., and Meschia, G., 1974, The stimulation of uterine blood flow by various estrogens, Endocrinology 94: 1192–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Resnik, R., Battaglia, F. C., Makowski, E. L., and Meschia, G., 1975, The effect of actinomycin-D on estrogen-induced uterine blood flow, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 122: 273–277.Google Scholar
  67. Resnik, R., Killam, A. P., Barton, M. D., Battaglia, F. C., Makowski, E. L., and Meschia, G., 1976, The effect of various compounds on the uterine vascular bed, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 125: 201–206.Google Scholar
  68. Resnik, R., Brink, G. W., and Plumer, M. H., 1977, The effect of progesterone on estrogen-induced uterine blood flow, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 128: 251–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Rosenfeld, C. R., and Jackson, G. M., 1982, Induction and inhibition of uterine vasodilatation by catechol 87Google Scholar
  70. estrogen in oophorectomized, nonpregnant ewes, Endocrinology 110:1333–1339.Google Scholar
  71. Rosenfeld, C. R., Killam, A. P., Battaglia, F. C., Makowski, E. L., and Meschia, G., 1973, Effect of estradiol-17(3 on the magnitude and distribution of uterine blood flow in nonpregnant oophorectomized ewes, Pediatr. Res. 7: 139–148.Google Scholar
  72. Shabanah, E. H., Toth, A., and Maughan, G. B., 1964, The role of the autonomic nervous system in uterine contractility and blood flow. n. The role of the parasympathetic neurohormone acetylcholine in uterine motility and blood flow, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 89: 860–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Stice, S. L., Van Orden, D. E., and Ford, S. P., 1985, Role of estrogen and catechol estrogen in reducing arterial tone and 45Ca uptake, Proc. Soc. Gynecol. Invest. 32: 112.Google Scholar
  74. Still, J. G., and Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1976, Effect of cis-and ira/w-clomiphene on the uterine blood flow of oophorectomized ewes, Gynecol. Invest. 7: 187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Still, J. G., and Greiss, F. C., Jr., 1978, The effect of prostaglandins and other vasoactive substances on uterine blood flow and myometrial activity, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 130: 1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Thorbert, G., 1979, Regional changes in structure and function of adrenergic nerves in guinea pig uterus during pregnancy, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. [Suppl.] 79: 5–32.Google Scholar
  77. Van Orden, D. E., Farley, D. B., and Clancey, C. J., 1983, Effect of parasympathetic decentralization and paracervical ganglion excision on reproductive function in the rat, Biol. Reprod. 28: 910–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Van Orden, D. E., Matthew, T. S., Farley, D. B., and Markham, A. L., 1987, Catechol estrogen synthesis and uterine vasodilatation: Role of uterine peroxidase, Proc. Soc. Gynecol. Invest. 34: 240.Google Scholar
  79. Whelly, S. M., and Barker, K. L., 1974, Early effect of estradiol on the peptide elongation rate by uterine ribosomes, Biochemistry 13: 341–346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wilhelmsson, L., Lindblom, B., Wikland, M., and Wiqvist, N., 1981, Effects of prostaglandins on the isolated uterine artery of nonpregnant women, Prostaglandins 22: 223–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zuspan, F. P., O’Shaughnessy, R., Vinsel, J., and Zuspan, M., 1981, Adrenergic innervation of the uterine vasculature in human term pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 139: 678–680.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank C. GreissJr.
    • 1
  • James C. Rose
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyBowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyBowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest UniversityWinston-SalemUSA

Personalised recommendations