Advertisement

Endocrine Control of Parturition

  • Melvyn S. Soloff

Abstract

In their introduction to the previous edition, Thorburn et al. (1977) stated: “We now recognize that in late pregnancy a train of events is initiated that ultimately results in the delivery of the fetus. However, we still do not know exactly how and where the train starts, or exactly how it exerts its ultimate action on the myometrial cell.” Little has changed in the last decade to increase our understanding of these events. Although the initiation of parturition is generally understood, the precise trigger for labor is still unknown. In addition, labor is complicated by different mechanisms in different species. For example, the onset of labor in rats and rabbits is rapid: uterine contractions become intense immediately before delivery, and the newborn are expelled rapidly. In humans, monkeys, and guinea pigs, labor develops slowly and is protracted. Schofield (1968) suggested that in species with a large fetus relative to the mother, a more protracted delivery may be an advantage. In the human and monkey, uterine motility evolves gradually during the last trimester of pregnancy, and actual labor often precedes delivery by many hours. It is possible that different mechanisms are at play in rapid-onset and protracted-onset types of labor.

Keywords

Amniotic Fluid Uterine Contraction Myosin Light Chain Kinase Premature Labor Oxytocin Receptor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, M. H., and Baird, D. T., 1980, The effect of 170-estradiol and progesterone on prostaglandin production by human endometrium maintained in organ culture. Endocrinology 106: 1599–1606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abel, M. H., and Kelly, R. W., 1979, Differential production of prostaglandins within the human uterus, Prostaglandins 18: 821–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abel, M. H., Smith, S. K., and Baird, D. T., 1980, Suppression of concentration of endometrial prostaglandin in early intra-uterine and ectopic pregnancy in women, J. Endocrinol. 85: 379–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adelstein, R. S., Conti, M. A., Hathaway, D. R., and Klee, C. B., 1978, Phosphoiylation of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase by the catalytic subunit of adenosine 3’: 5’-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 253: 8347–8350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ahlquist, R. P., 1966, The adrenergic receptor, J. Pharm. Sci. 55: 359–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aiken, J. W., 1972, Aspirin and indomethacin prolong parturition in rats. Evidence that prostaglandins contribute to expulsion of foetus, Nature 240: 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Äkerlund, M., Strömberg, P., Hauksson, A., Andersen, L. F., Lyndrup, J., Trojnar, J., and Melin, P., 1987, Inhibition of uterine contractions of premature labour with an oxytocin analogue, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 94: 1040–1044.Google Scholar
  8. Äkerman, K. E. O., and Wikstrom, M. K. F., 1979, (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-stimulated Atpase activity of rabbit myometrium plasma membrane is blocked by oxytocin FEBS Lett. 97: 283–287.Google Scholar
  9. Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M. S., 1980a, Oxytocin receptors and parturition. I. Control of oxytocin receptor concentration in the rat myometrium at term, Endocrinology 106: 730–735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M. S., 1980b, Oxytocin receptors and parturition. III. Increases in estrogen receptor and oxytocin receptor concentrations in the rat myometrium during PGF2a-induced abortion, Endocrinology 106: 739–743.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M. S., 1980c, Oxytocin receptors and parturition in the guinea pig, Biol. Reprod. 22: 1106–1111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Anderson, L. L., Bowerman, A. M., and Melampy, R. M., 1965, Oxytocin on ovarian function in cycling and hysterectomized heifers, J. Anim. Sci. 24: 964–968.Google Scholar
  13. Andersson, R. G. G., Berg, G., Johansson, S. R. M., and Ryden, G., 1980, Effects of non-selective and selective beta-adrenergic agonists on spontaneous contractions and cyclic AMP levels in myometrial strips from pregnant women, Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 11: 286–293.Google Scholar
  14. Armstrong, D. T., and Hansel, W., 1959, Alteration of the bovine estrous cycle with oxytocin, J. Dairy Sci. 42: 533–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bauknecht, T., Krähe, B., Rechenbach, U., Zahradnik, H. P., and Breckwoldt, M., 1981, Distribution of prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2a receptors in human myometrium, Acta Endocrinol. ( Kbh. ) 98: 446–450.Google Scholar
  16. Bejar, R., Curbelo, V., Davis, C., and Gluck, L., 1981, Premature labor. II. Bacterial sources of phos-pholipase, Obstet. Gynecol. 57: 479–482.Google Scholar
  17. Bell, C., and Malcolm, S. J., 1978, Observations on the loss of catecholamine fluorescence from intrauterine adrenergic nerves during pregnancy in the guinea pig, J. Reprod. Fertil. 53: 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bereu, B. B., Hyashi, A., Poth, M., Alexandrova, M., Soloff, M. S., and Donahoe, P. K., 1980, LHRH-induced delay of parturition, Endocrinology 107: 504–508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Billah, M. M., and Johnston, J. M., 1983, Identification of phospholipid platelet-activating factor (l-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-s/i-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in human amniotic fluid and urine, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113: 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Billah, M. M., Di Renzo, G. C., Ban, C., Truong, C. T., Hoffman, D. R., Anceschi, M. M., Bleasdale, J. E., and Johnston, J. M., 1985, Platelet-activating factor metabolism in human amnion and the responses of this tissue to extracellular platelet-activating factor, Prostaglandins 30: 841–850.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Blatchley, F. R., Donovan, B. T., Poyser, N. L., Horton, E. W., Thompson, C. J., and Los, M., 1971, Identification of prostaglandin F2ot in the utero-ovarian blood of guinea-pig after treatment with estrogen, Nature 230: 243–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bleasdale, J. E., Okazaki, T., Sagawa, N., Di Renzo, G. C., Okita, J. R., MacDonald, P. C., and Johnston, J. M., 1983, The mobilization of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin production during parturition, in: Initiation of Parturition: Prevention of Prematurity ( P. C. MacDonald and J. Porter, eds.), Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, pp. 129–137.Google Scholar
  23. Bothwell, W., Verbürg, M., Wynalda, M., Daniels, E. G., and Fitzpatrick, F. A., 1982, A radioimmunoassay for the unstable pulmonary metabolite of prostaglandin E! and E2: An indirect index of their in vivo disposition and pharmacokinetics, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 220: 229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Bouyer, J., Papiernik, E., Dreyfus, J., Collin, D., Winisdoerffer, B., and Gueguen, S., 1986, Maturation signs of the cervix and prediction of preterm birth, Obstet. Gynecol. 68: 209–214.Google Scholar
  25. Boyle, M. B., MacLusky, N. J., Naftolin, F., and Kaczmarek, L., 1987, Hormonal regulation of potassium channel mRNA in cycling and pregnant myometrium, Nature 330: 373–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brennecke, S. P., Lenton, E. A., Turnbull, A. C., and Mitchell, M. D., 1982, Inhibition of prostaglandin synthase by maternal plasma factor(s) in early human pregnancy, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 89: 612–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Brennecke, S. P., Humphreys, J., Bryce, R. L., Teasdale, W. P., Turnbull, A. C., and Mitchell, M. D., 1984, Maternal plasma inhibition of prostaglandin synthase during human pregnancy, parturition and the puer-perium, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 91: 349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brennecke, S. P., Humphreys, J., Bryce, R. L., Teasdale, W. P., Turnbull, A. C., and Mitchell, M. D., 1984, Maternal plasma inhibition of prostaglandin synthase during human pregnancy, parturition and the puer-perium,. 91: 349–352.Google Scholar
  29. Brennecke, S. P., Castle, B. M., Demers, L. M., and Turnbull, A. C., 1985, Maternal plasma prostaglandin E2 metabolite levels during human pregnancy and parturition, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 92: 345–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Brummer, H. C., 1971, Interaction of E prostaglandins and syntocinon on the pregnant human myometrium, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 78: 305–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bryant-Greenwood, G. D., 1982, Relaxin as new hormone, Endocrine Rev. 3: 62–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cabrol, D., Bouvier d’Yvoire, M., Mermet, E., Cedard, L., Sureau, C., and Baulieu, E. E., 1985, Induction of labour with mifepristone after intrauterine fetal death, Lancet 2: 1019.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Calder, A. A., Embrey, M. P., and Tait, T., 1977, Ripening of the cervix with extra-amniotic prostaglandin E2 in viscous gel before induction of labor, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 84: 264–268.Google Scholar
  34. Caldeyro-Barcia, R., and Sereno, J., 1961, The response of the human uterus to oxytocin throughout pregnancy, in: Oxytocin ( R. Caldeyro-Barcia and H. Heller, eds.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 177–202.Google Scholar
  35. Caldwell, B. V., Tillson, S., Brock, W. A., and Speroff, L., 1972, The effects of exogenous progesterone and estradiol on prostaglandin F levels in ovariectomized ewes, Prostaglandins 1: 217–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carsten, M. E., and Miller, J. D., 1985, Ca2+ release by inositol trisphosphate from Ca2 +-transporting microsomes derived from uterine sarcoplasmic reticulum, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 130: 1027–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Casey, M. L., and MacDonald, P. C., 1984, Endocrinology of preterm birth, Clin. Obstet. Gynecol. 27: 562–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Casey, M. L., Cutrer, S. I., and Mitchell, M. D., 1983a, Origin of prostanoids in human amniotic fluid: The fetal kidney as a source of amniotic fluid prostanoids, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 147: 547–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Casey, M. L., MacDonald, P. C., and Mitchell, M. D., 1983b, Stimulation of prostaglandin E2 production in amnion cells in culture by a substance(s) in human fetal and adult urine, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 114: 1056–1063.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Casey, M. L., MacDonald, P. C., and Mitchell, M. D., 1984, Characterization of prostaglandin formation by human amnion cells in monolayer culture, Prostaglandins 27: 421–427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Challis, J. R. G., and Vaughan, M., 1987, Steroid synthetic and prostaglandin metabolizing activity is present in different cell populations from human fetal membranes and decidua, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 1474–1481.Google Scholar
  42. Chamley, W. A., Bagoyo, M. M., and Bryant-Greenwood, G. D., 1977, in vitro response of relaxin-treated rat uterus to prostaglandins and oxytocin, Prostaglandins 14: 763–769.Google Scholar
  43. Chan, W. Y., 1977, Relationship between the uterotonic action of oxytocin and prostaglandins: Oxytocin action and release of PG-activity in isolated nonpregnant and pregnant rat uteri, Biol. Reprod. 17: 541–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chan, W. Y., 1980, The separate uterotonic and prostaglandin-releasing actions of oxytocin. Evidence and comparison with angiotensin and methacholine in the isolated rat uterus, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 213: 575–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Chan, W. Y., 1987, Enhanced prostaglandin synthesis in the parturient rat uterus and its effects on myometrial oxytocin receptor concentrations, Prostaglandins 34: 889–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chang, W. -C., Nakao, J., Murota, S. -I., and Tai, H. -H., 1983, Induction of fatty acid cyclooxygenase in rat aortic smooth muscle cells by estradiol, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 10: 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cheah, S. H., and Sherwood, O. D., 1980, Target tissues for relaxin in the rat: Tissue distribution of injected 125I-labeled relaxin and tissue changes in adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate levels after in vitro relaxin incubation, Endocrinology 106: 1203–1209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chegini, N., and Rao, C. V., 1988, The presence of leukotriene C4-and prostacyclin-binding sites in nonpreg-nant human uterine tissue, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 66: 76–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Chegini, N., Rao, C. V., Wakim, N., and Sanfilippo, J., 1986, Prostaglandin binding to different cell types of human uterus: Quantitative light microscope autoradiographic study, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 22: 129–138.Google Scholar
  50. Chester, R., Dukes, M., Slater, S. R., and Walpole, A. L., 1972, Delay of parturition in the rat by anti-inflammatory agents which inhibit the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, Nature 240: 37–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chew, C. S., and Rinard, G. A., 1979, Glycogen levels in the rat myometrium at the end of pregnancy and immediately postpartum, Biol. Reprod. 20: 1111–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Clark, J. H., and Markaverich, B. M., 1984, The agonistic and antagonistic actions of estriol, J. Steroid Biochem. 20: 1005–1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Clark, J. H., Hsueh, A. J. W., and Peck, E. J., Jr., 1977, Regulation of estrogen receptor replenishment by progesterone, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 286: 161–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Clegg, P. C., Hall, W. J., and Pickles, V. R., 1966, The action of ketonic prostaglandins on the guinea pig myometrium, J. Physiol. ( Lond. ) 183: 123–146.Google Scholar
  55. Cooke, R. G., and Homeida, A. M., 1985, Suppression of prostaglandin F2(X release and delay of luteolysis after active immunization against oxytocin in the goat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 75: 63–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cornette, J. C., Harrison, K. L., and Kirton, K. T., 1974, Measurement of prostaglandin F1 metabolites by radioimmunoassay, Prostaglandins 5: 155–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Crankshaw, D. J., 1987, The sensitivity of the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the rat’s myometrium to oxytocin in vitro during pregnancy, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol 65: 773–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Crankshaw, D. J., Crankshaw, J., Branda, L. A., and Daniel, E. E., 1979, Receptors for E type prostaglandins in the plasma membrane of nonpregnant human myometrium, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 198: 70–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Creange, J. E., Schane, H. P., Anzalone, A. J., and Potts, G. O., 1978, Interruption of pregnancy in rats by ázastene, an inhibitor of ovarian and adrenal steroidogenesis, Fértil. Steril. 30: 86–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Csapo, A. I., 1956, Progesterone block, Am. J. Anat. 98: 273–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Csapo, A. I., 1975, The “seesaw” theoiy of the regulatory mechanism of pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 121: 578–581.Google Scholar
  62. Csapo, A. I., and Resch, B. A., 1979, Induction of preterm labor in the rat by antiprogesterone, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 134: 823–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Csapo, A. I., and Takeda, H., 1965, Effect of progesterone on the electrical activity and intra-uterine pressure of pregnant and parturient rabbits, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 91: 221–231.Google Scholar
  64. Csapo, A. I., and Wiest, W. G., 1969, An examination of the quantitative relationship between progesterone and maintenance of pregnancy, Endocrinology 85: 735–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Csapo, A. I., Puri, C. P., Tarro, S., and Henzl, M. R., 1982, Deactivation of the uterus during normal and premature labor by the calcium antagonist nicardipine, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 142: 483–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Danforth, D. N., 1947, Fibrous nature of human cervix, and its relation to isthmic segment in gravid and nongravid uteri, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 53: 541–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Danforth, D. N., Veis, A., Breen, M., Weinstein, H. G., Buckingham, J. C., and Manalo, P., 1974, The effect of pregnancy and labor on the human cervix: Changes in collagen, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 120: 641–651.Google Scholar
  68. Darne, J., McGarrigle, H. H. G., and Lachelin, G. C. L., 1987, Saliva oestriol, oestradiol, oestrone and progesterone levels in pregnancy: Spontaneous labour at term is preceded by a rise in the saliva oestriol:progesterone ratio, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 94: 227–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Dey, F. L., Fisher, C., and Ranson, S. W., 1941, Disturbances in pregnancy and labor in guinea pigs with hypothalamic lesions, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 42: 459–466.Google Scholar
  70. Diczfalusy, E., 1974, Endocrine functions of the human fetus and placenta, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 119: 419–433.Google Scholar
  71. Di Renzo, G. C., Johnston, J. M., Okazaki, T., Okita, J. R., MacDonald, P. C., and Bleasdale, J. E., 1981, Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in fetal membranes and uterine decidua, J. Clin. Invest. 67: 847–856.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Di Renzo, G. C., Anceschi, M. M., and Bleasdale, J. E., 1984a, Beta-adrenergic stimulation of prostaglandin production by human amnion tissue, Prostaglandins 27: 37–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Di Renzo, G. C., Venincasa, M. D., and Bleasdale, J. E., 1984b, The identification and characterization of p-adrenergic receptors in human amnion tissue, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 148: 398–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Divers, W. A., Jr., Wilkes, M. M., Babaknia, A., and Yen, S. S. C., 1981, An increase in catecholamines and metabolites in the amniotic fluid compartment from middle to late gestation, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 139: 483–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Downing, S. J., and Sherwood, O. D., 1985a, The physiological role of relaxin in the pregnant rat. I. The influence of relaxin on parturition, Endocrinology 116: 1200–1205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Downing, S. J., and Sherwood, O. D., 1985b, The physiological role of relaxin in the pregnant rat. II. The influence of relaxin on uterine contractile activity, Endocrinology 116: 1206–1214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Downing, S. J., and Sherwood, O. D., 1985c, The physiological role of relaxin in the pregnant rat. III. The influence of relaxin on cervical extensibility, Endocrinology 116: 1215–1220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Downing, S. J., Bradshaw, J. M. C., and Porter, D. G., 1980, Relaxin improves the coordination of rat myometrial activity in vivo, Biol. Reprod. 23: 899–903.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Dubin, N. H., Ghodgaonkar, R. B., and King, T. M., 1979, Role of prostaglandin production in spontaneous and oxytocin-induced uterine contractile activity in in vitro pregnant rat uteri, Endocrinology 105: 47–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Edman, K. A. P., and Schild, H. O., 1962, The need for the calcium in the contractile responses induced by acetylcholine and potassium in the rat uterus, J. Physiol. ( Lond. ) 161: 424–441.Google Scholar
  81. Ekman, G., Forman, A., Marsál, K., and Ulmsten, U., 1983, Intravaginal versus intracervical application of prostaglandin E2 in viscous gel for cervical priming and induction of labor at term in patients with an unfavorable cervical state, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 147: 657–661.Google Scholar
  82. Ekman, G., Malmstrom, A., Uldbjerg, N., and Ulmsten, U., 1986, Cervical collagen: An important regulator of cervical function in term labor, Obstet. Gynecol. 67: 633–636.Google Scholar
  83. Ellendorff, F., Forsling, M., Parvizi, N., Williams, H., Taverne, M., and Smidt, D., 1979, Plasma oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations in response to prostaglandin injection into the pig, J. Reprod. Fertil. 56: 573–577.Google Scholar
  84. Embrey, M. P., 1969, The effect of prostaglandins on human pregnant uterus, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 76: 783–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Falck Larsen, J., Kern Hansen, M., Hesseldahl, H., Kristoffersen, K., Larsen, P. K., Osler, M., Weber, J., Eldon, K., and Lange, A., 1980, Ritodrine in the treatment of preterm labour. A clinical trial to compare a standard treatment with three regimens involving the use of ritodrine, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 87: 949–957.Google Scholar
  86. Falck Larsen, J., Eldon, K., Lange, A. P., Leegaard, M., Osler, M. Sederberg Olsen, J., and Permin, M., 1986, Ritodrine in the treatment of preterm labor: Second Danish multicenter study, Obstet. Gynecol. 67: 607–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ferguson, J. K. W., 1941, A study of the motility of the intact uterus at term, Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 73: 359–366.Google Scholar
  88. Fields, P. A., and Larkin, L. H., 1980, Enhancement of uterine cervix extensibility in oestrogen-primed mice following administration of relaxin, J. Endocrinol. 87: 147–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Fisher, C., Magoun, H. W., and Ranson, S. W., 1938, Dystocia in diabetes insipidus. The relation of pituitary oxytocin to parturition, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 36: 1–9.Google Scholar
  90. Fitzpatrick, F. A., Aguirre, R., Pike, J. E., and Lincoln, F. H., 1980, The stability of 13, 14-dihydro-15 keto-PGE2, Prostaglandins 19: 917–931.Google Scholar
  91. Flint, A. P. F., and Sheldrick, E. L., 1982, Ovarian secretion of oxytocin is stimulated by prostaglandins, Nature 297: 587–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Flint, A. P. F., Leat, W. M. F., Sheldrick, E. L., and Stewart, H. J., 1986, Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by oxytocin and the mechanism by which oxytocin controls prostaglandin synthesis in the ovine endometrium, Biochem. J. 237: 797–805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Flower, R. J., and Blackwell, G. J., 1979, Anti-inflammatory steroids induce biosynthesis of a phospholipase A2 inhibitor which prevents prostaglandin generation, Nature 278: 456–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Forman, A., Gandrup, P., Andersson, K. -E., and Ulmsten, U., 1982, Effects of nifedipine on oxytocin-and prostaglandin F2ot-induced activity in the postpartum uterus, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 144: 665–670.Google Scholar
  95. Fox, A. W., Friedman, P. A., and Abel, P. W., 1987, Vasopressin receptor mediated contraction and [3H]inositol metabolism in rat tail artery, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 135: 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Fuchs, A. -R., 1972, Prostaglandin effects on rat pregnancy. I. Failure of induction of labor, Fertil. Steril. 23: 410–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Fuchs, A. -R., 1985, Oxytocin in animal parturition, in: Oxytocin. Clinical and Laboratory Studies ( J. A. Amico, and A. G. Robinson, eds.), Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 207–235.Google Scholar
  98. Fuchs, A. -R., and Fuchs, F., 1984, Endocrinology of human parturition: A review, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 91: 948–967.Google Scholar
  99. Fuchs, A. -R., and Poblete, V. R., Jr., 1970, Oxytocin and uterine function in pregnant and parturient rats, Biol. Reprod 2: 387–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Fuchs, A. -R., Mok, E., and Sundaram, K., 1974, Luteolytic effects of prostaglandins in rat pregnancy, and reversal by luteinizing hormone, Acta Endocrinol. ( Kbh ). 76: 583–596.Google Scholar
  101. Fuchs, A. -R., Fuchs, F., Husslein, P., Soloff, M. S., and Fernstrom, M., 1982, Oxytocin receptors and human parturition: A dual role for oxytocin in the initiation of labor, Science 215: 1396–1398.Google Scholar
  102. Fuchs, A. -R., Periyasamy, S., Alexandrova, M., and Soloff, M. S., 1983a, Correlation between oxytocin receptor concentration and responsiveness to oxytocin in pregnant rat myometrium. Effects of ovarian steroids, Endocrinology 113: 742–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Fuchs, A. -R., Goeschen, K., Husslein, P., Rasmussen, A. B., and Fuchs, F., 1983b, Oxytocin and the initiation of human parturition. III. Plasma concentrations of oxytocin and 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-pros-taglandin F2a in spontaneous and oxytocin-induced labor at term, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 147: 497–502.Google Scholar
  104. Fuchs, A. -R., Fuchs, F., Husslein, P., and Soloff, M. S., 1984, Oxytocin receptors in human uterus during pregnancy and parturition, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150: 734–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Fuchs, A. -R., Fuchs, F., and Soloff, M. S., 1985, Oxytocin receptors in nonpregnant human uterus, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 60: 37–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Fukai, H., Den, K., Sakamoto, H., Kodaira, H., Uchida, F., and Takagi, S., 1984, Study of oxytocin receptor: II. Oxytocin and prostaglandin F2ot receptors in human myometria and amnion-decidua complex during pregnancy and labor, Endocrinol. Jpn. 31: 565–570.Google Scholar
  107. Furr, B. J. A., Valcaccia, B., and Challis, J. R. G., 1976, The effects of Nolvadex (tamoxifen citrate; ICI 46, 474) on pregnancy in rabbits, J. Reprod. Fertil. 48: 367–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Garfield, R. E., Kannan, M. S., and Daniel, E. E., 1980, Gap junction formation in myometrium: Control by estrogens, progesterone, and prostaglandins, Am. J. Physiol. 238: C81 - C89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Gennser, G., Ohrlander, S., and Eneroth, P., 1977, Fetal Cortisol and the initiation of labour in the human, in: The Fetus and Birth, Ciba Foundation Symposium, Elsevier/Excerpta Medica/North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 401–426.Google Scholar
  110. Gerzer, R., Brash, A. R., and Hardman, J. G., 1986, Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by arachidonic acid and 15-lipoxygenase products, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 886: 383–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Giannopoulos, G., Goldberg, P., Shea, T. B., and Tulchinsky, D., 1980, Unoccupied and occupied estrogen HKtplmin myometrial cytosol and nuclei from nonpregnant and pregnant women, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 5: 702–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Gibb, W., Lavoie, J. -C., and Roux, J. F., 1978, 30-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human fetal membranes, Steroids 32: 365–372.Google Scholar
  113. Gietzen, K., Seiler, S., Fleischer, S., and Wolf, H. U., 1980, Reconstitution of the Ca2+-transport system of human erythrocytes, Biochem. J. 188: 47–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Gillespie, A., 1972, Prostaglandin-oxytocin enhancement and potentiation and their clinical applications, Br. Med. J. 1: 150–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Gillespie, A., Brummer, H. C., and Chard, T., 1972, Oxytocin release by infused prostaglandin, Br. Med. J. 1: 543–544.Google Scholar
  116. Glasser, S. R., Northcutt, R. C., Chytil, F., and Strott, C. A., 1972, The influence of an antisteroidogenic drug (aminoglutethimide phosphate) on pregnancy maintenance, Endocrinology, 90: 1363–1370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Golichowski, A. M., 1986, Biochemical basis of cervical maturation, in: The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Uterus in Pregnancy and Labor ( G. Huszar, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 261–280.Google Scholar
  118. Golichowski, A. M., and Tzeng, D. Y., 1985, Binding of the calcium antagonist [3H]nitrendipine to human myometrial plasmalemma, Biol. Reprod. 33: 1105–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Gordon, A. J., and Calder, A. A., 1977, Oestradiol applied locally to ripen the unfavourable cervix, Lancet 2: 1319–1321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Goren, H. J., Geonzon, R. M., Hollenberg, M. D., Lederis, K., and Morgan, D. O., 1980, Oxytocin action: Lack of correlation between receptor number and tissue responsiveness, J. Supramol. Struct. 14: 129–138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Granstrom, E., Hamberg, M., Hansson, G., and Kindahl, H., 1980, Chemical instability of 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-PGE2: The reason for low assay reliability, Prostaglandins 19: 933–957.Google Scholar
  122. Gr6en, K., Bygdeman, M., Toppozoda, M., and Wiqvist, N., 1974, The role of PGF2a in human parturition. Endogenous plasma levels of 15-keto-13, 14-dihydroprostaglandin F1 during labor, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 120: 25–31.Google Scholar
  123. Grover, A. K., Kwan, C. -Y., Luchowski, E., Daniel, E. E., and Triggle, D. J., 1984, Subcellular distribution of [3H]nitrendipine binding in smooth muscle, J. Biol. Chem. 259: 2223–2226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Gutknecht, G. D., Duncan, G. W., and Wyngarden, L. J., 1972, Inhibition of prostaglandin F2ot or LH induced luteolysis in the pseudopregnant rabbit by 170-estradiol, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med 130: 406–413.Google Scholar
  125. Habenicht, A. J. R., Goerig, M., Grulich, J., Rothe, D., Gronwald, R., Loth, U., Schettler, G., Kommerell, B., and Ross, R., 1985, Human platelet-derived growth factor stimulates prostaglandin synthesis by activation and by rapid de novo synthesis of cyclooxygenase, J. Clin. Invest. 75: 1381–1387.Google Scholar
  126. Haldar, J., Kupfer, L., and Sokol, H. W., 1982, Decreased sensitivity to oxytocin of uteri from homozygous Brattleboro rats, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 394: 46–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Harden, T. K., 1983, Agonist-induced desensitization of the 0-adrenergic receptor-linked adenylate cyclase, Pharmacol. Rev. 35: 5–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Harris, B. A., Jr., Huddleston, J. F., Sutliff, G., and Perlis, H. W., 1983, The unfavorable cervix in prolonged pregnancy, Obstet. Gynecol. 62: 171–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Ham, E. A., Cirillo, V. J., Zanetti, M. E., and Kuehl, F. A., Jr., 1975, Estrogen-directed synthesis of specific prostaglandins in uterus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 72: 1420–1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hertelendy, F., 1973, Block of oxytocin-induced parturition and oviposition by prostaglandin inhibitors, Life Sci. 13: 1581–1589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Hilliard, J., 1973, Corpus luteum function in guinea pigs, hamsters, rats, mice and rabbits, Biol. Reprod. 8: 203–221.Google Scholar
  132. Hirata, F., Matsuda, K., Notsu, Y., Hattori, T., and del Carmine, R., 1984, Phosphorylation at a tyrosine residue of lipomodulin in mitogen-stimulated murine thymocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 81: 4717–4721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hochman, J., Weiss, G., Steinetz, B. G., and O’Byrne, E. M., 1978, Serum relaxin concentrations in prostaglandin-and oxytocin-induced labor in women, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 130: 473–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Hoffman, B. B., Lavin, T. N., Lefkowitz, R. J., and Ruffolo, R. R., Jr., 1981, Alpha adrenergic receptor subtypes in rabbit uterus: Mediation of myometrial contractions and regulation by estrogens, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 219: 290–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Hofmann, G. E., Rao, C. V., Barrows, G. H., and Sanfilippo, J. S., 1983, Topography of human uterine prostaglandin E and F2a receptors and their profiles during pathological states, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 56: 360–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Hollingsworth, M., Gallimore, S., and Isherwood, C. N. M., 1980, Effects of prostaglandins F2a and E2 on cervical extensibility in the late pregnant rat, J. Reprod. Fertil. 58: 95–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hong, S. L., and Deykin, D., 1981, The activation of phosphatidylinositol-hydrolyzing phospholipase A2 during prostaglandin synthesis in transformed mouse BALB/3T3 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 256: 5215–5219.Google Scholar
  138. Hooper, S. B., Watkins, W. B., and Thorburn, G. D., 1986, Oxytocin, oxytocin-associated neurophysin, and prostaglandin F2ot concentrations in the utero-ovarian vein of pregnant and nonpregnant sheep, Endocrinology 119: 2590–2597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Horton, E. W., and Poyser, N. L., 1976, Uterine luteolytic hormone: A physiological role for prostaglandin F2ct, Physiol. Rev. 56: 595–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Hsu, C. J., McCormack, S., and Sanborn, B. M., 1985, The effect of relaxin on cyclic adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate concentrations in rat myometrial cells in culture, Endocrinology 116: 2029–2035.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Husslein, P., Fuchs, A. -R., and Fuchs, F., 1981, Oxytocin and the initiation of human parturition. I. Prostaglandin release during induction of labor by oxytocin, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 141: 688–693.Google Scholar
  142. Husslein, P., Kofler, E., Rasmussen, A. B., Sumulong, L., Fuchs. A. -R., and Fuchs, F., 1983, Oxytocin and the initiation of human parturition. IV. Plasma concentrations of oxytocin and 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2a during induction of labor by artificial rupture of the membranes, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 147: 503–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Huszar, G., 1986, Cellular regulation of myometrial contractility and essentials of tocolytic therapy, in: The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Uterus in Pregnancy and Labor ( G. Huszar, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 107–126.Google Scholar
  144. Huszar, G., Cabrol, D., and Naftolin, F., 1986, The relationship between myometrial contractility and cervical maturation in pregnancy and labor, in: The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Uterus in Pregnancy and Labor ( G. Huszar, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 297–306.Google Scholar
  145. Ichida, S., Tokunaga, H., Oda, Y., Fujita, N., Hirata, A., and Hata, T., 1983, Increase of serotonin receptors in rat uterus induced by estradiol, J. Biol. Chem. 258: 13438–13443.Google Scholar
  146. Irvine, R. F., 1982, How is the level of free arachidonic acid controlled in mammalian cells ? Biochem. J. 204: 3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Janis, R. A., and Triggle, D. J., 1986, Effects of calcium channel antagonists on the myometrium, in: The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Uterus in Pregnancy and Labor ( G. Huszar ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 201–223.Google Scholar
  148. Jarvinen, P. A., Luukkainen, T., and Vaisto, L., 1965, The effect of oestrogen treatment on myometrial activity in late pregnancy, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. 44: 258–264.Google Scholar
  149. Johnson, M., Jessup, R., Jessup, S., and Ramwell, P. W., 1974, Correlation of prostaglandin E receptor binding with evoked uterine contraction: Modification by disulfide reduction, Prostaglandins 6: 433–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Jones, S. A., and Summerlee, A. J. S., 1987, Effects of chronic infusion of porcine relaxin on oxytocin release in lactating rats, J. Endocrinol. 114: 241–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Joseph, M. K., Fernstrom, M. A., and Soloff, M. S., 1982, Switching of (3-to a-tubulin phosphorylation in uterine smooth muscle of parturient rats, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 11728–11733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Judson, D. G., Pay, S., and Bhoola, K. D., 1980, Modulation of cyclic AMP in isolated rat uterine tissue slices by porcine relaxin, J. Endocrinol. 87: 153–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Kamm, K. E., and Stull, J. T., 1985, The function of myosin and myosin light chain kinase phosphorylation in smooth muscle, Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 25: 593–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kao, C. Y., 1976, Electrophysiological properties of uterine smooth muscle, in: Biology of the Uterus ( R. M. Wynn, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 423–496.Google Scholar
  155. Karim, S., 1971, Action of prostaglandin in the pregnant woman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 180: 483–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Karim, S. M. M., and Devlin, J., 1967, Prostaglandin content of amniotic fluid during pregnancy and labour, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 74: 230–234.Google Scholar
  157. Keirse, M. J. N. C., 1983, Prostaglandins during human parturition, in: Initiation of Parturition: Prevention of Prematurity ( P. C. MacDonald and J. Porter, eds.), Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, pp. 137–144.Google Scholar
  158. Keirse, M. J. N. C., and Turnbull, A. C., 1973, E Prostaglandins in amniotic fluid during late pregnancy and labour, J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Br. Commonw. 80: 970–973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Keirse, M. J. N. C., and Turnbull, A. C., 1975, Metabolism of prostaglandins within the pregnant uterus, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 82: 887–893.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Keirse, M. J. N. C., Mitchell, M. D., and Turnbull, A. C., 1977, Changes in prostaglandin F and 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F concentrations in amniotic fluid at the onset of and during labour, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol 84: 743–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Kertiles, L. P., and Anderson, L. L., 1979, Effect of relaxin on cervical dilatation, parturition and lactation in the pig, Biol. Reprod. 21: 57–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Khan-Dawood, F. S., and Da wood, M. Y., 1984, Estrogen and progesterone receptor and hormone levels in human myometrium and placenta in term pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 150: 501–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Kinoshita, K., Satoh, K., and Sakamoto, S., 1977, Biosynthesis of prostaglandin in human decidua, amnion, chorion, and villi, Endocrinol. Jpn. 24: 343–350.Google Scholar
  164. Klopper, A. I., and Dennis, L. K., 1962, Effect of oestrogens on myometrial contractions, Br. Med. J. 2: 1157–1159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Kolesnick, R. N., Musacchio, I., Thaw, C., and Gershengorn, M. C., 1984, Arachidonic acid mobilizes calcium and stimulates prolactin secretion from GH3 cells, Am. J. Physiol* 246: E458 - E462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Krall, J. F., Mori, H., Tuck, M. L., LeShon, S. L., and Korenman, S. G., 1978, Demonstration of adrenergic catecholamine receptors in rat myometrium and their regulation by sex steroids, Life Sci. 23: 1073–1081.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Kroc, R. L., Steinetz, B. G., and Beach, V. L., 1959, The effects of estrogens, progestagens, and relaxin in pregnant and nonpregnant laboratory rodents, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 75: 942–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Kuriyama, H., and Suzuki, H., 1976, Effects of prostaglandin E2 and oxytocin on the electrical activity of hormone-treated and pregnant rat myometria, J. Physiol. ( Lond. ) 260: 335–349.Google Scholar
  169. Lackritz, R., Tulchinsky, D., Ryan, K. J., and Levine, L., 1978, Plasma prostaglandin metabolites in human labor, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 131: 484–489.Google Scholar
  170. Lange, A. P., Secher, N. J., Westergaard, J. G., and Skovgard, I. B., 1982, Prelabor evaluation of inducibility, Obstet, Gynecol, 60: 137–147.Google Scholar
  171. Leake, R. D., Weitzman, R. E., Glatz, T. H., and Fisher, D. A., 1981, Plasma oxytocin concentrations in men, nonpregnant women, and pregnant women before and during spontaneous labor, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 53: 730–733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Leaver, H. A., and Richmond, D. H., 1984, The effects of oxytocin, estrogen, calcium ionophore A23187 and hydrocortisone on prostaglandin F2a and 6-oxo-prostaglandin Fl0l production by cultured human endometrial and myometrial explants, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 13: 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Leaver, H. A., and Seawright, A., 1982, Controls of endometrial prostaglandin output in vitro during the estrous cycle of the guinea pig: influence of estradiol 17(3, progesterone, oxytocin and calcium ionophore A23187, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 9: 657–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Levine, L., and Gutierrez-Cernosek, R. M. C., 1973, Levels of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2ci in biological fluids as measured by radioimmunoassay, Prostaglandins 3: 785–804.Google Scholar
  175. Lewis, R. B., and Schulman, J. D., 1973, Influence of acetylsalicylic acid, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, on the duration of human gestation and labour, Lancet 2: 1159–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Liggins, G. C., Fairclough, R. J., Grieves, S. A., Kendall, J. Z., and Knox, B. S., 1973, The mechanism of initiation of parturition in the ewe, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 29: 111–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Lopez Bernal, A., Hansell, D. J., Alexander, S., and Turnbull, A. C., 1987, Prostaglandin E production by amniotic cells in relation to term and preterm labour, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 94: 864–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Lumsden, M. A., and Baird, D. T., 1986, The effect of intrauterine administration of prostacyclin on the contractility of the non-pregnant uterus in vivo, Prostaglandins 31: 1011–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Lye, S. J., and Challis, J. R. G., 1982, Inhibition by PGI2 of myometrial activity in vivo in non-pregnant ovariectomized sheep, J. Reprod. Fertil. 66: 311–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Maathuis, J. B., and Kelly, R. W., 1978, Concentrations of prostaglandins F2a and E2 in the endometrium throughout the human menstrual cycle, after the administration of clomiphene or an oestrogen-progestogen pill and in early pregnancy, J. Endocrinol. 77: 361–371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. MacDonald, P. C., Schultz, F. M., Duenhoelter, J. H., Gant, N. F., Jimenez, J. M., Pritchard, J. A., Porter, J. C., and Johnston, J. M., 1974, Initiation of human parturition. I. Mechanism of action of arachidonic acid, Obstet. Gynecol. 44: 629–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. MacKenzie, I. Z., and Embrey, M. P., 1977, Cervical ripening with intravaginal prostaglandin E2 gel, Br. Med. J. 2: 1381–1384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. MacKenzie, I. Z., and Mitchell, M. D., 1981, Serial determinations of prostaglandin E in amniotic fluid following the vaginal administration of a prostaglandin E2 gel, Prostaglandins Med. 7: 43–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. MacLennan, A. H., Green, R. C., Bryant-Greenwood, G. D., Greenwood, F. C., and Seamark, R. F., 1980, Ripening of the human cervix and induction of labour with purified porcine relaxin, Lancet 1: 220–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Majerus, P. W., 1983, Arachidonate metabolism in vascular disorders, J. Clin. Invest. 72: 1521–1525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Manzai, M., and Liggins, G. C., 1984, Inhibitory effects of dispersed human amnion cells on production of prostaglandin E and F by endometrial cells, Prostaglandins 28: 297–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Marc, S., Leiber, D., and Harbon, S., 1986, Carbachol and oxytocin stimulate the generation of inositol phosphates in the guinea pig myometrium, FEBS Lett. 201: 9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Marshall, J. M., 1959, Effects of estrogen and progesterone on single uterine muscle fiber in the rat, Am. J. Physiol. 197: 935–942.Google Scholar
  189. Marshall, J. M., 1974, Effects of neurohypophysial hormones on the myometrium, in: The Pituitary Gland and its Neuroendocrine Control, Part 1, Handbook of Physiology, Section 7: Endocrinology, Vol. IV (R. O. Greep, E. B. Astwood, E. Knobil, W. H. Sawyer, and S. R. Geiger, eds.), American Physiological Society, Washington, pp. 469–492.Google Scholar
  190. McCoshen, J. A., Johnson, K. A., Dubin, N. H., and Ghodgaonkar, R. B., 1987, Prostaglandin E2 release on the fetal and maternal sides of the amnion and chorion-decidua before and after term labor, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol 156: 173–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. McCracken, J. A., Carlson, J. C., Glew, M. E., Goding, J. R., Baird, D. T., Green, K., and Samuelsson, B., 1972, Prostaglandin F2a identified as luteolytic hormone in sheep, Nature (New Biol) 238: 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. McPhail, L. C., Clayton, C. C., and Snyderman, R., 1984, A potential second messenger role for unsaturated fatty acids: Activation of Ca2 +-dependent protein kinase, Science 224: 622–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Mercado-Simmen, R. C., Bryant-Greenwood, G. D., and Greenwood, F. C., 1980, Relaxin receptor in the rat myometrium: Regulation by estrogen and relaxin, Endocrinology 110: 220–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Mercado-Simmen, R. C., Goodwin, B., Ueno, M. S., Yamamoto, S. Y., and Bryant-Greenwood, G. D., 1982, Relaxin receptors in the myometrium and cervix of the pig, Biol. Reprod. 26: 120–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Metz, S. A., Draznin, B., Sussman, K. E., and Leitner, J. W., 1987, Unmasking of arachidonate-induced insulin release by removal of extracellular calcium, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 142: 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Milewich, L., Gant, N. F., Schwarz, B., Chen, G. T., and MacDonald, P. C., 1977, Initiation of human parturition. VIII. Metabolism of progesterone by fetal membranes of early and late human gestation, Obstet. Gynecol. 50: 45–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Miller, M. D., and Marshall, J. M., 1965, Uterine response to nerve stimulation; Relation to hormonal status and catecholamines, Am. J. Physiol. 209: 859–865.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Miller, W. C., and Moore, J. B., Jr., 1984, High affinity binding sites for [3H]-nitrendipine in rabbit uterine smooth muscle, Life Sci. 34: 1717–1724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Mitchell, B., Cruickshank, B., McLean, D., and Challis, J., 1982, Local modulation of progesterone production in human fetal membranes, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 55: 1237–1239.Google Scholar
  200. Mitchell, B. F., Challis, J. R. G., and Lukash, L., 1987, Progesterone synthesis by human amnion, chorion, and decidua at term, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 157: 349–353.Google Scholar
  201. Mitchell, M. D., Flint, A. P. F., and Turnbull, A. C., 1975a, Stimulation by oxytocin of prostaglandin F levels in uterine venous effluent in pregnant and puerperal sheep, Prostaglandins 9: 47–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Mitchell, M. D., Keirse, M. J. N. C., Anderson, A. B. M., and Turnbull, A. C., 1975b, Evidence for a local control of prostaglandins within the pregnant human uterus, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 84: 35–38.Google Scholar
  203. Mitchell, M. D., Flint, A. P. F., and Turnbull, A. C., 1976a, Plasma concentrations of 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F during pregnancy in sheep, Prostaglandins 11: 319–329.Google Scholar
  204. Mitchell, M. D., Patrick, J. E., Robinson, J. S., Thorburn, G. D., and Challis, J. R. G., 1976b, Prostaglandins in the plasma and amniotic fluid of rhesus monkeys during pregnancy and after intra-uterine foetal death, J. Endocrinol. 71: 67–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Mitchell, M. D., Flint, A. P. F., Bibby, J., Brunt, J., Arnold, J. M., Anderson, A. B. M., and Turnbull, A. C., 1977, Rapid increases in plasma prostaglandin concentrations after vaginal examination and amniotomy, Br. Med. J. 2: 1183–1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Mitchell, M. D., Bibby, J., Hicks, B. R., and Turnbull, A. C., 1978, Specific production of prostaglandin E by human amnion in vitro, Prostaglandins 15: 377–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Mitchell, M. D., Strickland, D. M., Brennecke, S. P., and Saeed, S. A., 1983, New aspects of arachidonic acid metabolism in human parturition, in: Initiation of Parturition: Prevention of Prematurity ( P. C. MacDonald and J. Porter, eds.), Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, pp. 145–150.Google Scholar
  208. Mitchell, M. D., MacDonald, P. C., and Casey, M. L., 1984, Stimulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis in human amnion cells maintained in monolayer culture by a substance(s), in amniotic fluid, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 15: 399–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Montrucchio, G., Alloatti, G., Tetta, C., Roffinello, C., Emanuelli, G., and Camusi, G., 1986, In vitro contractile effect of platelet-activating factor on guinea pig myometrium, Prostaglandins 32: 539–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Mukku, V. R., and Stancel, G. M., 1985, Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor by estrogen, J. Biol. Chem. 260: 9820–9824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Murphy, B. E. P., 1982, Human fetal serum Cortisol levels related to gestational age: evidence of mid-gestational fall and a steep late rise, independent of sex or mode of delivery, Am. J. Obstet, Gynecol. 144: 276–282.Google Scholar
  212. Musah, A. I., Schwabe, C., Willham, R. L., and Anderson, L. L., 1986, Relaxin on induction of parturition in beef heifers, Endocrinology 118: 1476–1482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Nagata, I., Sunaga, H., Furuya, K., Makimura, N., and Kato, K., 1987, Changes in the plasma prostaglandin F2ct metabolite before and during spontaneous labor and labor induced by amniotomy, oxytocin, and PGE2, Endocrinol. Jpn. 34: 153–159.Google Scholar
  214. Nakla, S., Skinner, K., Mitchell, B. F., and Challis, J. R. G., 1986, Changes in prostaglandin transfer across human fetal membranes obtained after spontaneous labor. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 1337–1341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Nieder, J., and Augustin, W., 1983, Increase of prostaglandin E and F equivalents in amniotic fluid during late pregnancy and rapid PGF elevation after cervical dilatation, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 12: 289–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Niesert, S., Christopherson, W., Korte, K., Mitchell, M. D., MacDonald, P. C., and Casey, M. L., 1986, Prostaglandin E2 9-ketoreductase activity in human decidua vera tissue, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 155: 1348–1352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. Nishihara, J., Ishibashi, T., Imai, Y., and Muramatsu, T., 1984, Mass spectrometry evidence for the presence of platelet-activating factor (1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-s/i-glycero-3-phosphocholine) in human amniotic fluid during labor, Lipids 19: 907–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Nishikori, K., Weisbrodt, N. W., Sherwood, O. D., and Sanborn, B. M., 1983, Effects of telaxin on rat uterine myosin light chain kinase activity and myosin light chain phosphorylation, J. Biol. Chem. 258: 2468–2474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Northover, B. J., 1972, The effects of indomethacin on calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium fluxes in various tissues of the guinea-pig, Br. J. Pharmacol. 45: 651–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Novy, M. J., 1983, Endocrine control of parturition in rhesus monkeys, in: Initiation of Parturition: Prevention of Prematurity ( P. C. MacDonald and J. Porter, eds.), Ross Laboratories, Columbus, OH, pp. 62–71.Google Scholar
  221. Novy, M. J., Cook, M. J., and Manaugh, L., 1974, Indomethacin block of normal onset of parturition in primates, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 118: 412–416.Google Scholar
  222. O’Grady, J. P., Caldwell, B. V., Auletta, F. J., and Speroff, L., 1972, The effects of an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin) on ovulation, pregnancy, and pseudopregnancy in the rabbit, Prostaglandins 1: 97–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Okazaki, T., Casey, M. L., Okita, J. R., MacDonald, P. C., and Johnston, J. M., 1981, Initiation of human parturition. XII. Biosynthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins in human fetal membranes and uterine decidua, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 139: 373–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. Olson, D. M., Skinner, K., and Challis, J. R. G., 1983a, Prostaglandin output in relation to parturition by cells dispersed from human intrauterine tissues, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 57: 694–699.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Olson, D. M., Opavsky, M. A., and Challis, J. R. G., 1983b, Prostaglandin synthesis by human amnion is dependent upon extracellular calcium, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 61: 1089–1092.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Omini, C., Folco, G. C., Pasargiklian, R., Fano, M., and Berti, F., 1979, Prostacyclin (PGI2) in pregnant human uterus, Prostaglandins 17: 113–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Padayachi, T., Norman, R. J., Reddi, K., Schweni, M., Philpott, H., and Joubert, S. M., 1986, Changes in amniotic fluid prostaglandins with oxytocin-induced labor, Obstet. Gynecol. 68: 610–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Pavlik, E. J., and Coulson, P. B., 1976, Modulation of estrogen receptors in four different target tissues: Differential effects of estrogen vs. progesterone, J. Steroid Biochem. 7: 369–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Pearce, D. J., 1977, Pre-induction priming of the uterine cervix with oral prostaglandin E2 and a placebo, Prostaglandins 14: 571–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Pearlmutter, A. F., and Soloff, M. S., 1979, Characterization of the metal ion requirement for oxytocin-receptor interaction in rat mammary gland membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 3899–3906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Perry, G., Siegal, B., and Held, B., 1977, Second trimester abortion: Single dose intra-amniotic injection of prostaglandin F1 with intraveous oxytocin augmentation, Prostaglandins 13: 987–994.Google Scholar
  232. Pharriss, B. B., and Wyngarden, L. J., 1969, The effect of prostaglandin F2a on the progestogen content of ovaries from pseudopregnant rats, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 130: 92–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Pinto, R. M., Fisch, L., Schwarcz, R. L., and Montuori, E., 1964, Action of estradiol upon uterine contractility and the milk ejecting effect in pregnant women, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 90: 99–107.Google Scholar
  234. Pinto, R. M., Leon, C., Mazzocco, N., and Scasserra, V., 1967, Action of estradiol-17p at term and at onset of labor, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 98: 540–546.Google Scholar
  235. Piper, P., and Vane, J., 1971, The release of prostaglandins from lungs and other tissues, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 180: 363–385.Google Scholar
  236. Porter, D. G., Downing, S. J., and Bradshaw, J. M. C., 1979, Relaxin inhibits spontaneous and prostaglandin-driven myometrial activity in anaesthetized rats, J. Endocrinol. 83: 183–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Porter, D. G., Downing, S. J., and Bradshaw, J. M. C., 1981, Inhibition of oxytocin-or prostaglandin F2a-driven myometrial activity by relaxin in the rat is oestrogen dependent, J. Endocrinol. 89: 399–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Poyser, N. L., Horton, E. W., Thompson, C. J., and Los, M., 1971, Identification of prostaglandin F2a released by distention of guinea-pig uterus in vitro, Nature 230: 526–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Rath, W., Adelmann-Grill, B. C., Pieper, U., and Kuhn, W., 1987, The role of collagenases and proteases in prostaglandin-induced cervical ripening, Prostaglandins 34: 119–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Raziano, J., Ferin, M., and Vande Wiele, R. L., 1972, Effects of antibodies to estradiol-17p and to pro-gesterone on nidation and pregnancy in rats, Endocrinology 90: 1133–1138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Reddi, K., Kambaran, S. R., Norman, R. J., Joubert, S. M., and Philpott, H., 1984, Abnormal concentrations of prostaglandins in amniotic fluid during delayed labour in multigravid patients, Br. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. 91: 781–787.Google Scholar
  242. Rehnstrdm, J., Ishikawa, M., Fuchs, F., and Fuchs, A. -R., 1983, Stimulation of myometrial and decidual prostaglandin production by amniotic fluid from term, but not midterm pregnancies, Prostaglandins 26: 973–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Reynolds, S. R. M., Hellman, L. M., and Bruns, P., 1948, Patterns of uterine contractility in women during pregnancy, Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 3: 629–646.Google Scholar
  244. Riemer, R. K., Goldfien, A. C., Goldfien, A., and Roberts, J. M., 1986, Rabbit uterine oxytocin receptors and in vitro contractile response: Abrupt changes at term and the role of eicosanoids, Endocrinology 119: 699–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Riley, S. C., and Poyser, N. L., 1987, Prostaglandin production by the guinea-pig endometrium: Is calcium necessary? Endocrinol. 113: 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Roberts, J. M., Insel, P. A., and Goldfien, A., 1981, Regulation of myometrial adrenoreceptors and adrenergic response by sex steroids, Mol. Pharmacol. 20: 52–58.Google Scholar
  247. Roberts, J. S., and McCracken, J. A., 1976, Does prostaglandin F2a released from the uterus by oxytocin mediate the oxytocic action of oxytocin? Biol. Reprod. 15: 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Roberts, J. S., Barcikowski, B., Wilson, L., Skarnes, R. C., and McCracken, J. A., 1975, Hormonal and related factors affecting the release of prostaglandin F2a from the uterus, J. Steroid Biochem. 6: 1091–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Roberts, J. S., McCracken, J. A., Gavagan, J. E., and Soloff, M. S., 1976, Oxytocin-stimulated release of prostaglandin F2ct from ovine endometrium in vitro: Correlation with estrous cycle and oxytocin-receptor binding, Endocrinology 99: 1107–1114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Robinson, J. S., Chapman, R. L. K., Challis, J. R. G., Mitchell, M. D., and Thorburn, G. D., 1978, Administration of extra-amniotic arachidonic acid and the suppression of uterine prostaglandin synthesis during pregnancy in the rhesus monkey, J. Reprod. Fertil. 54: 369–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Romero, R., Lafreniere, D., Hobbins, J. C., and Mitchell, M. D., 1987, A soluble product from human decidua inhibits prostaglandin production by human amnion, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 30: 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Saeed, S. A., and Mitchell, M. D., 1982, Stimulants of prostaglandin biosynthesis in human fetal membranes, uterine decidua vera and placenta, Prostaglandins 24: 475–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Saeed, S. A., McDonald-Gibson, W. J., Cuthbert, J., Copas, J. L., Schneider, C., Gardiner, P. J., Butt, N. M., and Collier, H. O. J., 1977, Endogenous inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, Nature 270: 32–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Saeed, S. A., Strickland, D. M., Young, D. C., Dang, A., and Mitchell, M. D., 1982, Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by human amniotic fluid: Acute reduction in inhibitory activity of amniotic fluid obtained during labor, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 55: 801–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Sakai, K., Yamaguchi, T., Morita, S., and Uchida, M., 1983, Agonist-induced contraction of rat myometrium in Ca-free solution containing Mn, Gen. Pharmacol. 14: 391–400.Google Scholar
  256. Saldana, L. R., Schulman, H., Yang, W. H., Cunningham, M. A., and Randolf, G., 1974, Midtrimester abortion by prostaglandin impact, Obstet. Gynecol. 44: 579–585.Google Scholar
  257. Salomy, M., Halbrecht, I., and London, R., 1975, Mid-trimester abortion with intra-amniotic prostaglandin F2a and intravenous oxytocin infusion, Prostaglandins 9: 271–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Samuelsson, B., Granstrom, E., Green, K., Hamberg, M., and Hammarstrom, S., 1975, Prostaglandins, Ann«. Rev. Biochem. 44: 669–695.Google Scholar
  259. Samuelsson, B., Goldyne, M., Granstrom, E., Hamberg, M., Hammarstrom, S., and Malmsten, C., 1978, Prostaglandins and thromboxanes, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 47: 997–1029.Google Scholar
  260. Sanborn, B. M., 1986, The role of relaxin in uterine function, in: The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Uterus in Pregnancy and Labor ( G. Huszar, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 225–238.Google Scholar
  261. Sanborn, B. M., Kuo, H. S., Weisbrodt, N. W., and Sherwood, O. D., 1980, The interaction of relaxin with the rat uterus. I. Effect on cyclic nucleotide levels and spontaneous contractile activity, Endocrinology 106: 1210–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Sawyer, W. H., Frieden, E. H., and Martin, A. S., 1953, In vitro inhibition of spontaneous contractions of the rat uterus by relaxin-containing extracts of sow ovaries, Am. J. Physiol. 178: 547–552.Google Scholar
  263. Schatz, F., Markiewicz, L., and Gurpide, E., 1984, Effects of estriol on PGF2a output by cultures of human endometrium and endometrial cells, J. Steroid Biochem. 20: 999–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Schatz, F., Markiewicz, L., and Gurpide, E., 1987, Differential effects of estradiol, arachidonic acid, and A23187 on prostaglandin F2tx output by epithelial and stromal cells of human endometrium, Endocrinology 120: 1465–1471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Schillinger, E., and Prior, G., 1976, Characteristics of prostaglandin receptor sites in human uterine tissue, Adv. Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res. 1: 259–263.Google Scholar
  266. Schirar, A., Capponi, A., and Catt, K. J., 1980, Regulation of uterine angiotensin II receptors by estrogen and progesterone, Endocrinology 106: 5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Rehnstrdm, J., Ishikawa, M., Fuchs, F., and Fuchs, A. -R., 1983, Stimulation of myometrial and decidual prostaglandin production by amniotic fluid from term, but not midterm pregnancies, Prostaglandins 26: 973–981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Reynolds, S. R. M., Hellman, L. M., and Bruns, P., 1948, Patterns of uterine contractility in women during pregnancy, Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 3: 629–646.Google Scholar
  269. Riemer, R. K., Goldfien, A. C., Goldfien, A., and Roberts, J. M., 1986, Rabbit uterine oxytocin receptors and in vitro contractile response: Abrupt changes at term and the role of eicosanoids, Endocrinology 119: 699–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Riley, S. C., and Poyser, N. L., 1987, Prostaglandin production by the guinea-pig endometrium: Is calcium necessary?/. Endocrinol. 113: 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Roberts, J. M., Insel, P. A., and Goldfien, A., 1981, Regulation of myometrial adrenoreceptors and adrenergic response by sex steroids, Mol. Pharmacol. 20: 52–58.Google Scholar
  272. Roberts, J. S., and McCracken, J. A., 1976, Does prostaglandin F2a released from the uterus by oxytocin mediate the oxytocic action of oxytocin? Biol. Reprod. 15: 457–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Roberts, J. S., Barcikowski, B., Wilson, L., Skarnes, R. C., and McCracken, J. A., 1975, Hormonal and related factors affecting the release of prostaglandin F2a from the uterus, J. Steroid Biochem. 6: 1091–1097.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Roberts, J. S., McCracken, J. A., Gavagan, J. E., and Soloff, M. S., 1976, Oxytocin-stimulated release of prostaglandin F2ct from ovine endometrium in vitro: Correlation with estrous cycle and oxytocin-receptor binding, Endocrinology 99: 1107–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Robinson, J. S., Chapman, R. L. K., Challis, J. R. G., Mitchell, M. D., and Thorburn, G. D., 1978, Administration of extra-amniotic arachidonic acid and the suppression of uterine prostaglandin synthesis during pregnancy in the rhesus monkey, J. Reprod. Fertil. 54: 369–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Romero, R., Lafreniere, D., Hobbins, J. C., and Mitchell, M. D., 1987, A soluble product from human decidua inhibits prostaglandin production by human amnion, Prostaglandins Leukotrienes Med. 30: 29–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Saeed, S. A., and Mitchell, M. D., 1982, Stimulants of prostaglandin biosynthesis in human fetal membranes, uterine decidua vera and placenta, Prostaglandins 24: 475–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Saeed, S. A., McDonald-Gibson, W. J., Cuthbert, J., Copas, J. L., Schneider, C., Gardiner, P. J., Butt, N. M., and Collier, H. O. J., 1977, Endogenous inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, Nature 270: 32–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Saeed, S. A., Strickland, D. M., Young, D. C., Dang, A., and Mitchell, M. D., 1982, Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by human amniotic fluid: Acute reduction in inhibitory activity of amniotic fluid obtained during labor, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 55: 801–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Sakai, K., Yamaguchi, T., Morita, S., and Uchida, M., 1983, Agonist-induced contraction of rat myometrium in Ca-free solution containing Mn, Gen. Pharmacol. 14: 391–400.Google Scholar
  281. Saldana, L. R., Schulman, H., Yang, W. H., Cunningham, M. A., and Randolf, G., 1974, Midtrimester abortion by prostaglandin impact, Obstet. Gynecol. 44: 579–585.Google Scholar
  282. Salomy, M., Halbrecht, I., and London, R., 1975, Mid-trimester abortion with intra-amniotic prostaglandin F2a and intravenous oxytocin infusion, Prostaglandins 9: 271–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Samuelsson, B., Granstrom, E., Green, K., Hamberg, M., and Hammarstrom, S., 1975, Prostaglandins, Ann«. Rev. Biochem. 44: 669–695.Google Scholar
  284. Samuelsson, B., Goldyne, M., Granstrom, E., Hamberg, M., Hammarstrom, S., and Malmsten, C., 1978, Prostaglandins and thromboxanes, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 47: 997–1029.Google Scholar
  285. Sanborn, B. M., 1986, The role of relaxin in uterine function, in: The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Uterus in Pregnancy and Labor ( G. Huszar, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 225–238.Google Scholar
  286. Sanborn, B. M., Kuo, H. S., Weisbrodt, N. W., and Sherwood, O. D., 1980, The interaction of relaxin with the rat uterus. I. Effect on cyclic nucleotide levels and spontaneous contractile activity, Endocrinology 106: 1210–1215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Sawyer, W. H., Frieden, E. H., and Martin, A. S., 1953, In vitro inhibition of spontaneous contractions of the rat uterus by relaxin-containing extracts of sow ovaries, Am. J. Physiol. 178: 547–552.Google Scholar
  288. Schatz, F., Markiewicz, L., and Gurpide, E., 1984, Effects of estriol on PGF2a output by cultures of human endometrium and endometrial cells, J. Steroid Biochem. 20: 999–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Schatz, F., Markiewicz, L., and Gurpide, E., 1987, Differential effects of estradiol, arachidonic acid, and A23187 on prostaglandin F2tx output by epithelial and stromal cells of human endometrium, Endocrinology 120: 1465–1471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. Schillinger, E., and Prior, G., 1976, Characteristics of prostaglandin receptor sites in human uterine tissue, Adv. Prostaglandin Thromboxane Res. 1: 259–263.Google Scholar
  291. Schirar, A., Capponi, A., and Catt, K. J., 1980, Regulation of uterine angiotensin II receptors by estrogen and progesterone, Endocrinology 106: 5–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Schofield, B. M., 1957, The hormonal control of myometrial function during pregnancy, J. Physiol. ( Lond. ) 138: 1–10.Google Scholar
  293. Schofield, B. M., 1964, Myometrial activity in the pregnant guinea-pig, J. Endocrinol 30: 347–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. Schofield, B. M., 1968, Parturition, in: Advances in Reproductive Physiology, Vol. 3 ( A. McLaren, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 9–32.Google Scholar
  295. Schrey, M. P., Read, A. M., and Steer, P. J., 1986, Oxytocin and vasopressin stimulate inositol phosphate production in human gestational myometrium and decidual cells, Biosci. Rep. 6: 613–619.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. Schwabe, C., Steinetz, B., Weiss, G., Segaloff, A., McDonald, J. K., O’Byrne, E., Hochman, J., Carriere, B., and Goldsmith, L., 1978, Relaxin, Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 34: 123–211.Google Scholar
  297. Schwalm, H., and Dubrauszky, V., 1966, The structure of the musculature of the human uterus-muscles and connective tissue, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 94: 391–404.Google Scholar
  298. Scott, R. S., and Rennie, P. I. C., 1970, Factors controlling the lifespan of the corpora lutea in the pseudopreg-nant rabbit, J. Reprod. Fertil. 23: 415–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Sellers, S. M., Hodgson, H. T., Mitchell, M. D., Anderson, A. B. M., and Turnbull, A. C., 1982, Raised prostaglandin levels in the third stage of labor, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 144: 209–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. Seppala, M., Kajanona, P., Widholm, O., and Vara, P., 1972, Prostaglandin-oxytocin abortion: A clinical trial on intra-amniotic prostaglandin F2a in combination with intravenous oxytocin, Prostaglandins 2: 311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Sharma, S. C., and Fitzpatrick, R. J., 1974, Effect of oestradiol-17p and oxytocin on prostaglandin F alpha release in the anoestrus ewe, Prostaglandins 6: 97–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Sheldrick, E. L., Mitchell, M. D., and Flint, A. P. F., 1980, Delayed luteal regression in ewes immunized against oxytocin, J. Reprod. Fertil. 59: 37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Sherwood, O. D., Nara, B. S., Crnekovic, V. E., and First, N. L., 1969, Relaxin concentrations in pig plasma after the administration of indomethacin and prostaglandin F2a during late pregnancy, Endocrinology 104: 1716–1721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Skinner, K. A., and Challis, J. R. G., 1985, Changes in the synthesis and metabolism of prostaglandins by human fetal membranes and decidua at labor, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 151: 519–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Skinner, S J. M., Liggins, G. C., Wilson, T., and Neale, G., 1984, Synthesis of prostaglandin F by cultured human endometrial cells, Prostaglandins 27: 821–838.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Soloff, M. S., and Alexandrova, M., 1981, Parturition, lactation and the regulation of oxytocin receptors, in: Reproductive Processes and Contraception ( K. W. McKerns, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 281–303.Google Scholar
  307. Soloff, M. S., and Grzonka, Z., 1986, Effects of manganese on relative affinities of receptors for oxytocin analogues. Binding studies with rat myometrial and mammary gland membranes, Endocrinology 119: 1564–1569.Google Scholar
  308. Soloff, M. S., and Swartz, T. L., 1974, Characterization of a proposed oxytocin receptor in the uterus of the rat and sow, J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1376–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Soloff, M. S., and Sweet, P., 1982, Oxytocin inhibition of (Ca2+ + Mg2+)Atpase activity in rat myometrial plasma membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 257: 10687–10693.Google Scholar
  310. Soloff, M. S., Alexandrova, M., and Fernstrom, M. J., 1979, Oxytocin receptors: Triggers for parturition and lactation? Science 204: 1313–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Soloff, M. S., Fernstrom, M. A., Periyasamy, S., Soloff, S., Baldwin, S., and Wieder, M. f 1983, Regulation of oxytocin receptor concentration in rat uterine explants by estrogen and progesterone, Can. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 61: 625–630.Google Scholar
  312. Spellacy, W. N., Cruz, A. C., Birk, S. A., and Buhi, W. C., 1979, Treatment of premature labor with ritodrine: A randomized controlled study, Obstet. Gynecol. 54: 220–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. Speroff, L., Caldwell, B. V., Brock, W. A., Anderson, G. G., and Hobbins, J. C., 1972, Hormone levels during prostaglandin F2a infusions for therapeutic abortion, J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 34: 531–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Strauss, J. F. III, and Stambaugh, R. L., 1974, Induction of 20a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat corpora lutea of pregnancy by prostaglandin F2a Prostaglandins 5: 73–85.Google Scholar
  315. Strauss, J. F. III, Sokoloski, J., Caploe, P., Duffy, P., Mintz, G., and Stambaugh, R. L., 1975, On the role of prostaglandins in parturition in the rat, Endocrinology 96: 1040–1043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Strickland, D. M., Saeed, S. A., Casey, M. L., and Mitchell, M. D., 1983, Stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis by urine of the human fetus may serve as a trigger for parturition, Science 220: 521–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Stys, S. J., 1986, Endocrine regulation of cervical functions during pregnancy, in: The Physiology and Biochemistry of the Uterus in Pregnancy and Labor ( G. Huszar, ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 281–295.Google Scholar
  318. Summerlee, A. J. S., O’Byrne, K. T., Paisley, A. C., Breeze, M. F., and Porter, D. G., 1984, Relaxin affects the central control of oxytocin release, Nature 309: 372–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Szlachter, N., O’Byrne, E., Goldsmith, L., Steinetz, B. G., and Weiss, G., 1980, Myometrial inhibiting activity of relaxin-containing extracts of human corpora lutea of pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 136: 584–586.Google Scholar
  320. Takahashi, K., Diamond, F., Bieniarz, J., Yen, H., and Burd, L., 1980, Uterine contractility and oxytocin sensitivity in preterm, term, and postterm pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 136: 774–779.Google Scholar
  321. Tansey, T. R., and Padykula, H. A., 1978, Cellular responses to experimental inhibition of collagen degradation in the postpartum rat uterus, Anat. Rec. 191: 287–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. Taylor, M. J., Webb, R., Mitchell, M. D., and Robinson, J. S., 1982, Effect of progesterone withdrawal in sheep during late pregnancy, J. Endocrinol. 92: 85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. Tetta, C., Montrucchio, G., Alloatti, G., Roffinello, C., Emanuelli, G., Benedetto, C., Camussi, G., and Massobrio, M., 1986, Platelet-activating factor contracts human myometrium in vitro, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 183: 376–381.Google Scholar
  324. Theobald, G. W., 1959, The choice between death from postmaturity or prolapsed cord and life from induction of labour, Lancet 1: 59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. Theobald, P. W., Rath, W., Kiihnle, H., and Kuhn, W., 1982, Histologic and electron-microscopic examina-tions of collagenous connective tissue of the non-pregnant cervix, the pregnant cervix, and the pregnant prostaglandin-treated cervix, Arch. Gynecol. 231: 241–245.Google Scholar
  326. Thorbert, G., 1978, Regional changes in structure and function of adrenergic nerves in guinea-pig uterus during pregnancy, Acta Obstet. Gynecol. Scand. [Suppl.] 79: 1–32.Google Scholar
  327. Thorbert, G., Aim, P., Bjorklund, A. B., Owman, C., and Sjoberg, N. -O., 1979, Adrenergic innervation of the human uterus: Disappearance of the transmitter and transmitter-forming enzymes during pregnancy, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 135: 223–226.Google Scholar
  328. Thorburn, G. D., and Challis, J. R. G., 1979, Endocrine control of parturition, Physiol. Rev. 59: 863–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. Thorburn, G. D., Challis, J. R. G., and Robinson, J. S., 1977, Endocrine control of parturition, in: Biology of the Uterus ( R. M. Wynn, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 653–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Touqui, L., Rothhut, B., Shaw, A. M., Fradin, A., Vargaftig, B. B., and Russo-Marie, F., 1986, Platelet activation-a role for a 40K anti-phospholipase A2 protein indistinguishable from lipocortin, Nature 321: 177–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Ulmsten, U., Andersson, K. -E., and Wingerup, L., 1980, Treatment of premature labor with the calcium antagonist nifedipine, Arch. Gynecol. 229: 1–5.Google Scholar
  332. Valentine, B. H., 1977, Intravenous oxytocin and oral prostaglandin E2 for ripening of the unfavourable cervix, Br. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 84: 846–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Vane, J. R., and Williams, K. I., 1972, Prostaglandin production contributes to the contractions of the rat isolated uterus, Br. J. Pharmacol. 45: 146P.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. Vesin, M. -F., Khac, L. D., and Harbon, S., 1978, Modulation of intracellular adenosine cyclic 3’, 5’-mono-phosphate and contractility of rat uterus by prostaglandins and polyunsaturated fatty acids, Mol. Phar-macol. 14: 24–37.Google Scholar
  335. Vu Hai, M. T., Logeat, F., Warembourg, M., and Milgrom, E., 1977, Hormonal control of progesterone receptors, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 286: 199–209.Google Scholar
  336. Wahl, L. M., Blandau, R. J., and Page, R. C., 1977, Effect of hormones on collagen metabolism and collagenase activity in the pubic symphysis ligament of the guinea pig, Endocrinology 100: 571–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. Wallner, B. P., Mattaliano, R. J., Hession, C., Cate, R. L., Tizard, R., Sinclair, L. K., Foeller, C., Chow, E. P., Browning, J. L., Ramachandran, K. L., and Pepinsky, R. B., 1986, Cloning and expression of human lipocortin, a phospholipase A2 inhibitor with potential anti-inflammatory activity, Nature 320: 77–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Walsh, S. W., Kittinger, G. W., and Novy, M. J., 1979a, Maternal peripheral concentrations of estradiol, estrone, Cortisol, and progesterone during late pregnancy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatto) and after experimental fetal anencephaly and fetal death, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 135: 37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. Walsh, S. W., Norman, R. L., and Novy, M. J., 1979b, In utero regulation of rhesus monkey fetal adrenals: Effects of dexamethasone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrothropin-releasing hormone, prolactin, human chorionic gonadotropin, and a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on fetal and maternal plasma steroids, Endocrinology 104: 1805–1813.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. Walsh, S. W., Resko, J. A., Grumbach, M. M., and Novy, M. J., 1980 In utero evidence for a functional fetoplacental unit in rhesus monkeys, Biol. Reprod. 23: 264–270.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. Waltman, R., Tricomi, V., and Palav, A., 1973, Aspirin and indomethacin: Effect on instillation/abortion time on mid-trimester hypertonic saline induced abortion, Prostaglandins 3: 47–58.Google Scholar
  342. Warnock, D. H., and Csapo, A. I., 1975, Progesterone withdrawal induced by ICI 81008 in pregnant rats, Prostaglandins 10: 715–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. Warrick, C., Skinner, K., Mitchell, B. F., and Challis, J. R. G., 1985, Relation between cyclic adenosine monophosphate and prostaglandin output by dispersed cells from human amnion and decidua, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 153: 66–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. Wiegerinck, M. A. H. M., Poortman, J., Donker, T. H., and Thijssen, J. H. H., 1983, In vivo uptake and subcellular distribution of tritium-labeled estrogens in human endometrium, myometrium, and vagina, J. Clin. Endocrinol Metab. 56: 76–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. Wiest, W. G., Kidwell, W. R., and Balogh, K., Jr., 1968, Progesterone catabolism in the rat ovary: A regulatory mechanism for progestational protency during pregnancy, Endocrinology 82: 844–859.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. Wikland, M., Lindblom, B., Hammarstrom, S., and Wiqvist, N., 1983, The effect of prostaglandin I2 on the contractility of the term pregnant human myometrium, Prostaglandins 26: 905–916.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. Wilhelmsson, L., Wikland, M., and Wiqvist, N., 1981, PGH2, TXA2 and PGI2 have potent and differentiated actions on human uterine contractility, Prostaglandins 21: 277–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. Williams, K. I., Dembinska-Kiec, A., Zmuda, A., and Gryglewski, R. J., 1978, Prostacyclin formation by myometrial and decidual fractions of the pregnant rat uterus, Prostaglandins 15: 343–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. Williams, K. I., El-Tahir, K. E. H., and Marcinkiewicz, E., 1979, Dual actions of prostacyclin (PGI2) on the rat pregnant uterus, Prostaglandins 17: 667–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. Williams, L. T., and Lefkowitz, R. J., 1977, Regulation of rabbit myometrial alpha adrenergic receptors by estrogen and progesterone, J. Clin. Invest. 60: 815–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. Willman, E. A., and Collins, W. P., 1978, The metabolism of prostaglandin E2 by tissues from the human uterus and foeto-placental unit, Acta Endocrinol. ( Kbh ). 87: 632–642.Google Scholar
  352. Wiqvist, N., Lundstrom, V., and Groen, K., 1985, Premature labor and indomethacin, Prostaglandins 10: 515–526.Google Scholar
  353. Wlodawer, P., Kindahl, H., and Hamberg, M., 1976, Biosynthesis of prostaglandin F2a from arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxides in the uterus, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 431: 603–614.Google Scholar
  354. Wolf, B. A., Turk, J., Sherman, W. R., and McDaniel, M. L., 1986, Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization by arachidonic acid, J. Biol. Chem. 261: 3501–3511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. Zarrow, M. X., Anderson, N. C., and Callantine, M. R., 1963, Failure of progesterone to prolong pregnancy in the guinea pig, Nature 198: 690–692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. Zeitler, P., and Handwerger, S., 1985, Arachidonic acid stimulates phosphoinositol hydrolysis and human placental lactogen release in an enriched fraction of placental cells, Mol. Pharmacol. 28: 549–554.Google Scholar
  357. Zuckerman, H., Reiss, U., and Rubinstein, I., 1974, Inhibition of human premature labor by indomethacin, Obstet. Gynecol. 44: 787–792.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melvyn S. Soloff
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryMedical College of OhioToledoUSA

Personalised recommendations