Conclusions and Prospects

  • Mauro Bendinelli
  • Steven Specter
  • Herman Friedman
Part of the Infectious agents and pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


Previous chapters of this multiauthored volume have dealt with the interactions that individual viruses or groups of viruses establish with the host’s immune system and with the functional consequences of these interactions. Rather than simply recapitulating data and concepts already developed, this chapter focuses on future goals of research in this area. The interest here is provocative thought. Thus, speculations are presented especially in regard to the clinical implications of the problem.


Respiratory Syncytial Virus Kawasaki Disease Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Immune Deficiency Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dolin, R., R. C. Reichman, and A. S. Fauci, Lymphocyte populations in acute viral gas troenteritis, Infect. Immun. 14:422–428 (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Norley, S. G., and R. C. Wardley, Investigation of porcine natural-killer cell activity with reference to African swine-fever virus infection, Immunology 49:593–597 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Olsen, C. G., M. I. Stiff, and R. G. Olsen, Comparison of the blastogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes from canine parvovirus-positive and -negative outbred dogs. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 6:285–290 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Engers, H. D., J. A. Louis, R. H. Zubler, and B. Hirt, Inhibition of T cell-mediated functions by MVM(i), a parvovirus closely related to minute virus of mice, J. Immunol. 127:2280–2285 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morrison, R. P., J. Nishio, and B. Chesebro, Influence of the murine MHC (H-2) on Friend leukemia virus-induced immunosuppression, J. Exp. Med. 163:301–314 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rinaldo, C. R., Jr., R. L. DeBiasio, W. H. Hamoudi, B. Rabin, M. Liebert, and T. R. Hakala, Effect of herpesvirus infections on T-lymphocyte subpopulations and blastogenic responses in renal transplant recipients receiving cyclosporine, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 38:357–366 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Maher, P., C. M. O’Toole, T. G. Wreghitt, D. J. Spiegelhalter, and T. A. H. English, Cytomegalovirus infection in cardiac transplant recipients associated with chronic T cell subset ratio inversion with expansion of a Leu7+ Ts-c+ subset, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 62:515–524 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Oldstone, M. B. A., A. Tishon, J. M. Chiller, W. O. Weigle, and F. J. Dixon, Effect of chronic viral infection on the immune system. I. Comparison of the immune responsiveness of mice chronically infected with LCM virus with that of noninfected mice, J. Immunol 110:1268–1278 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Inada, T., and C. A. Mims, Mouse la antigens are receptors for lactate dehydrogenase virus, Nature (Lond.) 309:59–61 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bendinelli, M., D. Matteucci, and H. Friedman, Retrovirus-induced acquired immunodeficiencies, Adv. Cancer Res. 45:125–181 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Levandowski, R. A., D. W. Ou, and G. G. Jackson, Acute-phase decrease of T lymphocyte subsets in rhinovirus infection, J. Infect. Dis. 153:743–748 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haase, A. T. ,Pathogenesis of lentivirus infections. Nature (Lond.) 322:130–136 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Braun, R. W., and H. Kirchner, T lymphocytes activated by interleukin 2 alone acquire permissiveness for replication of herpes simplex virus, Eur. J. Immunol. 16:709–711 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fauci, A. S., The human immunodeficiency virus. Infectivity and mechanisms of pathogenicity, Science 239:617–622 (1988).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mims, C. A., and D. O. White, Viral Pathogenesis and Immunology ,Blackwell, Oxford, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Notkins, A. L, and M. B. A. Oldstone, Concepts in Viral Pathogenesis ,Springer-Verlag, New York, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fries, L. F., H. M. Friedman, G. H. Cohen, R.J. Eisenberg, C. H. Hammer, and M. M. Frank, Glycoprotein C of herpes simplex virus 1 is an inhibitor of the complement cascade, J. Virol. 137:1636–1641 (1986).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pahwa, S., R. Pahwa, C. Saxinger, R. C. Gallo, and R. A. Good, Influence of the human T-lymphotropic virus/lymphadenopathy associated virus on functions of human lymphocytes: Evidence for immunosupressive effects and polyclonal B-cell activation by banded viral preparations, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:8198–8202 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cianciolo, G. J. ,T. D. Copelan, S. Oroszlan, and R. Snyderman, Inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation by a synthetic peptide homologous to retroviral envelope proteins, Science 230:433–455 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harrell, R. A., G. J. Cianciolo, T. D. Copelan, S. Oroszlan, and R. Snyderman, Suppression of the respiratory burst of human monocytes by a synthetic peptide homologous to envelope proteins of human and animal retroviruses, J. Immunol. 136:3517–3520 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Balm, A. J., I. B. Tan, H. A. Drexhage, R. J. Scheper, B. M. von Blomberg, M. de Haan, and G. B. Snow, Head and neck carcinomas contain retroviral-p15(E) related factors which inhibit monocyte migration, in: Fifth Joint Meeting of the American Society of Head and Neck Surgery and Society of Head and Neck Surgeons, Dorado, Puerto Rico, May 5–8, 1985 ,p. 68.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Matteucci, D., A. Toniolo, P. G. Conaldi, F. Basolo, and M. Bendinelli, Systemic lymphoid atrophy in coxsackievirus B3-infected mice: Effects of virus and immunopotentiating agents, J. Infect. Dis. 151:1100–1108 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Suzumura, A., E. Lavi, S. R. Weiss, and D. H. Silberberg, Coronavirus infection induces H-2 antigen expression on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, Science 232:991–993 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Todd, I., R. Pujol-Borrell, L. J. Hammond, G. F. Bottazzo, and M. Feldman, Interferon-gamma induces HLA-DR expression in thyroid epithelium, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 61:265– 273 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nagai, H., T. Morishima, Y. Morishima, S. Isomura, and S. Suzuki, Local T cell subsets in mumps meningitis, Arch. Dis. Child. 58:927–935 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Morishima, Y., K. Ohya, T. Morishima, K. Nishikawa, and T. Fukuda, Immunological studies on adult T cell leukaemia virus (ATLV) carriers, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 64:457–464 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sing, G. K., and H. M. Garnett, The effects of human cytomegalovirus challenge in vitro on subpopulations of T cells from seronegative donors, J. Med. Virol. 14:363–371 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rodgers, B. C., D. M. Scott, J. Mundin, and Y. G. P. Sissons, Monocyte-derived inhibitor of interleukin 1 induced by human cytomegalovirus, J. Virol. 55:527–532 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sheridan, J. F., M. Beck, L. Aurelian, and M. Radowsky, Immunity to herpes simplex virus: Virus reactivation modulates lymphokine activity, J. Infect. Dis. 152:449–456 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blazar, B. A., L. M. Lutton, and M. Strome, Immunomodulatory activity in supernatants from EBV-immortalized lymphocytes, Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 22:62–67 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Roberts, N.J. Jr., A. H. Prill, and T. N. Mann, Interleukin 1 and interleukin 1 inhibitor production by human macrophages exposed to influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus: Respiratory syncytial virus is a potent inducer of inhibitor activity. /. Exp. Med. 163:511–519 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McDonald, T. L. Blocking of cell-mediated immunity to Moloney murine sarcoma virus-transformed cells by lactate dehydrogenase virus-antibody complex, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70:493–497 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schrier, R. D., G. P. A. Rice, and M. B. A. Oldstone, Suppression of natural killer cell activity and T cell proliferation by fresh isolates of human cytomegalovirus, J. Infect. Dis. 153:1084–1091 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuno, S., R. Ueno, O. Hayaishi, H. Nakashima, and S. Harada, Prostaglandin E2, a seminal constituent, facilitates the replication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus in vitro, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:3487–3490 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Toniolo, A., D. Matteucci, P. G. Conaldi, and M. Bendinelli, Virus-induced immunodeficiency. Antibody responsiveness of MuLV-infected spleen cells following transfer into irradiated mice, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. 173:197–206 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Edson, K. M., S. B. Vinson, D. B. Stoltz, and M. D. Summers, Virus in a parasitoid wasp: Suppression of the cellular immune response in the parasitoiLs host, Science 211:583–584 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bendinelli, M., and L. Nardini, Immunodepression by Rowson-Parr virus in mice. II. Effect of Rowson-Parr virus infection on the antibody response to sheep red cells in vivo and in vitro, Infect. Immun. 7:160–166 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    O’Toole, C. M., J. J. Gray, P. Maher, and T. G. Wreghitt, Persistent excretion of cytomegalovirus in heart transplant patients correlates with inversion of the ratio of T helper/T suppressor-cytotoxic cells, J. Infect. Dis. 153:1160–1162 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wainberg, M. A., J. D. Portnoy, B. Clecner, S. Hubschman, J. Lagacé-Simard, N. Rabinovitch, Z. Remer, and J. Mendelson, Viral inhibition of lymphocyte proliferative responsiveness in patients suffering from recurrent lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, J. Infect. Dis. 152:441–448 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hwan, S., and B. N. Wilkie, Mitogen-and viral antigen-induced transformation of lymphocytes from normal mink and from mink with progressive or nonprogressive Aleutian disease, Infect. Immun. 34:111–114 (1981).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sissons, J. G. P., and L. K. Borysiewicz, Viral immunopathology, Brit. Med. Bull. 41:34–40 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Smithwick, E. M., Common viruses as immunosuppressive agents, in: The Nature, Cellular, and Biochemical Basis and Management of Immunodeficiencies ,(R. A. Good and E. Lindenlaub, (eds.), pp. 115–126, Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1986.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Coovadia, H. M., Recent advances in the understanding of measles, South Afr. J. Hosp. Med. 6:143–148 (1980).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ho, M., Cytomegalovirus. Biology and Infection ,Plenum, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Essex, M. E., M. F. McLane, N. Tachibana, D. P. Francis, and T. Lee, Seroepidemiology of human T-cell leukemia virus in relation to immunosuppression and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in: Human T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Virus (R. C. Gallo, M. E. Essex, and L. Gross, (eds.), pp. 355–362, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (1984).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bielefeldt Ohmann, H., and L. A. Babiuk, Viral infections in domestic animals as models for studies of viral immunology and pathogenesis, J. Gen. Virol. 66:1–25 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Nicholson, J. K. A., G. D. Cross, C. S. Callaway, and J. S. McDougal, In vitro infection of human monocytes with human T lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus, J. Immunol. 137:323–329 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gartner, S., P. Markovitz, D. M. Markovitz, M. H. Kaplan, R. C. Gallo, and M. Popovic, The role of mononuclear phagocytes in HTLV-III/LAV infection, Science 233:215–219 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ablashi, D. V., E. A. Hunter, K. L. Ablashi, S. Z. Salahuddin, P. D. Markham, B. Kramarsky, and R. C. Gallo, Chronic HTLV-III infection in EBV-genome containing B-cell lines, in: Abstracts of the Second International Symposium on Epstein-Barr Virus and Association of Malignant Diseases ,p. 115 (1986).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Klein, A. S., R. Fixler, and J. Shoham, Antiviral activity of a thymic factor in experimental viral infections. I. Thymic hormonal effect on survival, interferon production and NK cell activity in mengo virus-infected mice, J. Immunol. 132:3159–3163 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gudvangen, R. J., P. S. Duffey, R. E. Paque, and C. J. Gauntt, Levamisole exacerbates coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis, Infect. Immun. 41:1157–1165 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lane, H. C, H. Masur, D. L. Longo, H. G. Harvey, A. H. Rook, G. V. Quinnan, R. G. Steis, A. Macher, G. Whalen, L. C. Edgar, and A. S. Fauci, Partial immune reconstitution in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, N. Engl. J. Med. 311:1099–1103 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hayward, A. R., Immunodeficiency, in: Immunological Aspects of Infectious Diseases (G. Dick, ed.), pp. 151–200, MTP Press, Lancaster, (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Oldstone, M. B. A., An old nemesis in new clothing: Viruses playing new tricks by causing cytopathology in the absence of cytolysis, J. Infect. Dis. 152:665–667 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pahwa, S., M. Kaplan, S. Fikrig, R. Pahwa, M. G. Sarngadharan, M. Popovic, and R. C. Gallo, Spectrum of human T cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in children. JAMA 255:2299–2305 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rickinson, A. B., Chronic, symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infections, Immunol. Today 7:13–14 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chorba, T., P. Coccia, R. C. Halman, P. Tattersall, L. J. Anderson, J. Sudman, N. S. Young, E. Kurczynski, U. M. Saarinen, R. Moir, D. N. Lawrence, J. M. Jason, and E. Evatt, The role of parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiousum (fifth disease), J. Infect. Dis. 154:383–393 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wolfgram, L. J., K. W. Beisel, and N. R. Rose, Heart-specific autoantibodies following murine coxsackievirus B3 myocarditis, J. Exp. Med. 161:1112–1121 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kay, M. M. B., Long term subclinical effects of parainfluenza (Sendai) infection on immune cells of aging mice, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 158:326–331 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cruz, J. R., and J. L. Waner. Effect of concurrent cytomegaloviral infection and undernutrition on the growth and immune response of mice, Infect. Immun. 21:436–441 (1978).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kim, B. S., and K. M. Hui, Induction of infectious immunodeficiency in BALB/c mice by serial transfer of lymphocytes immune to alloantigens, J. Immunol. 135:255–260 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mauro Bendinelli
    • 1
  • Steven Specter
    • 2
  • Herman Friedman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiomedicineUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of MedicineUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

Personalised recommendations