Picornavirus-Induced Immunosuppression

  • Carlo Garzelli
  • Fulvio Basolo
  • Donatella Matteucci
  • Bellur S. Prabhakar
  • Antonio Toniolo
Part of the Infectious agents and pathogenesis book series (IAPA)


Picornaviridae are small RNA viruses with a naked ether-resistant icosahedral capsid, 22–30 nm in diameter. The capsid is composed of four different poly peptides (VP1-VP4), three of 20–40 kDa, one of 5-10 kDa. One molecule of each makes up the capsid structural subunits and the capsid comprises 60 capsomeres. In addition, a single copy of a smaller polypeptide (VPg) is covalently linked to the 5’ end of the genome.


Infected Mouse Lymphoid Organ Encephalomyocarditis Virus Paralytic Poliomyelitis Mouse Central Nervous System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Matthews, R. E. F. ,Fourth report of the International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Classification and Nomenclature of viruses, Intervirology 17:1–199 (1982).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gustafson, D. P., Foot and mouth disease, in: Disease Transmitted from Animals to Man (W. H. Hubbert, W. Mc Cullock, and P. R. Schnurrenberger, eds.), pp. 859-865, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois (1975).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Friedman, A., and Y. Lorch, Theiler’s virus infection: A model for multiple sclerosis, Prog. Med. Virol. 31:43–83 (1985).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kurane, I., L. N. Binn, W. H. Bancroft, and F. A. Ennis, Human lymphocyte responses to hepatitis A virus-infected cells: Interferon production and lysis of infected cells, J. Immunol. 135:2140–2144 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Povey, R. C., R. C. Wardley, and H. Jessen, Feline picornavirus infection: the in vivo carrier state, Vet. Rec. 92:224–229 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 7.
    Bjare, U., Propagation of large quantities of poliovirus in human lymphoblastoid cells grown in serum-free medium, J. Virol. Methods 9:259–268 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 8.
    Carp, R. I., Persistent infection of human lymphoid cells with poliovirus and development of temperature-sensitive mutants, Intervirology 15:49–56 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 9.
    Matteucci, D., M. Paglianti, A. M. Giangregorio, M. R. Capobianchi, F. Dianzani, and M. Bendinelli, Group B coxsackieviruses readily establish persistent infections in human lymphoid cell lines, J. Virol. 56:651–654 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 10.
    Prabhakar, B. S., M. A. Menegus, and A. L. Notkins, Detection of conserved and noncon-served epitopes on Coxsackievirus B4: Frequency of antigenic change, Virology 146:302-306 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 11.
    Rozhon, E. J., A. K. Wilson, and B. Jubelt, Characterization of genetic changes occurring in attenuated poliovirus 2 during persistent infection in mouse central nervous systems, J. Virol. 50:137–144 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 12.
    Nottay, B. K., O. M. Kew, M. H. Hatch, J. T. Heyward, and J. F. Obijeski, Molecular variation of type 1 vaccine-related and wild polioviruses during replication in humans, Virology 108:405–423 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 13.
    Yoon, J. W., P. R. Mc Clintock, T. Onodera, and A. L. Notkins, Virus-induced diabetes mellitus. XVIII. Inhibition by a non diabetogenic variant of encephalomyocarditis virus, /. Exp. Med. 152:878–892 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 14.
    Moore, M., and D. M. Morens, Enteroviruses, including polioviruses, in: Textbook of Human Virology (R. B. Belshe ed.), pp. 407–483, PSG Publishing Company, Littleton, Massachusetts (1984).Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    Melnick, J. L., and A. S. Kaplan, Dual antibody response to coxsackie and poliomyelitis viruses in patients with paralytic poliomyelitis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 74:812–815 (1950).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 16.
    Melnick, J. L., A. S. Kaplan, E. Zabin, G. Contreras, and N. W. Larkum, An epidemic of paralytic poliomyelitis characterized by dual infections with poliomyelitis and coxsackie viruses, J. Exp. Med. 94:471–492 (1951).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 17.
    Sebastiani, A., G. Fontana, and A. Balestrieri, Su due casi di polmonite pneumocistica del lattante associata ad infezione da virus Coxsackie B1, Arch. Ital. Sci. Med. Trop. Parass. 47:191–198 (1966).Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    Bendinelli, M., A. Ruschi, M. Campa, and A. Toniolo, Depression of humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by coxsackieviruses in mice, Experientia ,31:1227–1229 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 19.
    Bendinelli, M., D. Matteucci, A. Toniolo, A. M. Patane, and A. M. Pistillo, Impairment of immunocompetent mouse spleen cell functions by infection with coxsackievirus B3, J. Infect. Dis. 146:797–805 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 20.
    Gresser, I., and C. Cheny, Multiplication of poliovirus type I in preparation of human leukocytes and its inhibition by interferon, J. Immunol. 92:889–895 (1964).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 21.
    Willems, F. T. C., J. L. Melnick, and W. E. Rawls, Viral inhibition of the phytohemag-glutinin response of human lymphocytes and application to viral hepatitis, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 130:652–661 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 22.
    Willems, F. T. C., J. L. Melnick, and W. E. Rawls, Replication of poliovirus in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes, J. Virol. 3:451–457 (1969).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 23.
    Soontiens, F. J. C. J., and J. Van Der Veen, Evidence for a macrophage-mediated effect of poliovirus on the lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin, J. Immunol. 111: 1411 -1419 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 24.
    Van Loon, A. M., J. Th. M. Van Der Logt, and J. Van Der Veen, Poliovirus-induced suppression of lymphocyte-stimulation: A macrophage-mediated effect, Immunology 37:135–143 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 25.
    Mella, B., and D. J. Lang, Leucocyte mitosis: Suppression in vitro associated with infec tious hepatitis, Science 155:80–81 (1967).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 26.
    Olson, G. B., Effect of various viruses on the responsiveness of mouse lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin stimulation, Infect. Immun. 7:438–444 (1973).Google Scholar
  26. 27.
    Toniolo, A., D. Matteucci, F. Basolo, and M. Bendinelli, The immune system in experimental coxsackievirus-B3 infection, in: Viruses Immunity and Immunodeficiency (A. Szetivanyi and H. Friedman, eds.), pp. 101–105, Plenum, New York (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 28.
    Morishima, T., P. R. McClintock, L. C. Billups, and A. L. Notkins, Expression and modulation of virus receptors on lymphoid and myeloid cells: relationship to infectivity, Virology 116:605–618 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 29.
    Matteucci, D., A. Toniolo, P. G. Conaldi, F. Basolo, Z. Gori, and M. Bendinelli, Systemic lymphoid atrophy in coxsackievirus B3-infected mice: Effects of virus and immunopotentiating agents, J. Infect. Dis. 51:1100–1108 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 30.
    Kantoch, M., and H. Dobrowolska, Studies on the inheritance of the susceptibility to poliovirus of phytohemagglutinin-transformed macrophages, Acta Virol. (Praha) 13:153–155 (1969).Google Scholar
  30. 31.
    Belardelli, F., F. Vignaux, E. Proietti, and I. Gresser, Injection of mice with antibody to interferon renders peritoneal macrophages permissive for vescilular stomatitis virus and encephalomyocarditis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:602–606 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 32.
    Gauntt, C. J., M. D. Trousdale, D. R. L. LaBadie, R. E. Paque, and T. Nealon, Properties of coxsackievirus B3 variants which are amyocarditic or myocarditic for mice, J. Med. Virol. 3:207–220 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 33.
    Rager-Zisman, B. R., and A. C. Allison, The role of antibody and host cells in the resistance of mice against infection by Coxsackie B-3 virus, J. Gen. Virol. 19:329–338 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 34.
    Mathiesen, L. R., S. M. Feinstone, R. H. Purcell, and J. O. Wagner, Detection of hepatitis A antigen by immunofluorescence, Infect. Immun. 18:524–530 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 35.
    Kahn, D. E., and J. H. Gillespie, Feline viruses: Pathogenesis of picornavirus infection in the cat, Am. J. Vet. Res. 32:521–531 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 36.
    Bultmann, B. D., O. Haferkamp, H. J. Eggers, and H. Gruler, Echo 9 virus-induced order-disorder transition of chemotactic response of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: Phenomenology and molecular biology, Blood Cells 10:79–106 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 37.
    Bultmann, B. D., P. Allmendinger, R. U. Raus, I. Melzner, O. Haferkamp, H. J. Eggers, and H. Gruler, F-Met-Leu-Phe and echo 9 virus interaction with human granulocytes. Changes of cell membrane structure, Am. J. Pathol. 116:46–55 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 38.
    Kirkpatrick, C. J., B. D. Bultmann, and H. Gruler, Interaction between enteroviruses and human endothelial cells in vitro. Alterations in the physical properties of endothelial cell plasma membrane and adhesion of human granulocytes, Am. J. Pathol. 118:15–25 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 39.
    Busse, W. W., C. L. Anderson, E. C. Dick, and D. Warshauer, Reduced granulocyte response to isoproterenol, histamine, and prostaglandin E1 after in vitro incubation with rhinovirus 16, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 122:641–646 (1980).Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    Vallbracht, A., P. Gabriel, J. Zahn, and B. Flehmig, Hepatitis A virus infection and the interferon system, J. Infect. Dis. 152:211–213 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 41.
    Gould, C. L., K. G. McMannama, N. J. Bigley, and D. J. Giron, Exacerbation of the pathogenesis of the diabetogenic variant of encephalomyocarditis virus in mice by inter feron,/ Interferon Res. 5:33–37 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 42.
    Lutton, C. W., and C. J. Gauntt, Ameliorating effect of IFN-beta and anti-IFN-beta on coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis in mice, J. Interferon Res. 5:137–146 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 43.
    Vallbracht, A., L. Hofman, K. G. Wurster, and B. Flehmig, Persistent infection of human fibroblasts by hepatitis A virus, J. Gen. Virol. 65:609–615 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 44.
    Siegelman, M., M. W. Bond, M. W. Gallatin, T. St. John, H. T. Smith, V. A. Fried, and I. L. Weissman, Cell surface molecule associated with lymphocyte homing is a ubiquitinated branched-chain glycoprotein, Science 231:823–829 (1986).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 45.
    Gudvangen, R. J., P. S. Duffey, R. E. Paque, and C. J. Gauntt, Levamisole exacerbates coxsackievirus B3-induced murine myocarditis, Infect. Immun. 43:1157–1165 (1983).Google Scholar
  45. 46.
    Friedman, H. M., E. J. Macarack, R. R. MacGregor, J. Wolfe, and N. A. Kefalides, Virus infection of endothelial cells, J. Infect. Dis. 143:266–273 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 47.
    Bodensteiner, J. B., H. H. Morris, J. T. Howell J. T., and S. S. Schochet, Chronic ECHO type 5 virus meningoencephalitis in X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia: treatment with immune plasma, Neurology (NY), 29:815–819 (1979).Google Scholar
  47. 48.
    Wilfert, C. M., R. H. Buckley, T. Mohanakumar, J. F. Griffith, S. L. Katz, J. K. Whisnant, P. A. Eggleston, M. Moore, E. Treadwell, M. N. Oxman, and F. S. Rosen, Persistent and fatal central nervous system echovirus infections with agammaglobulinemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 296:1485–1489 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 49.
    Mease, P. J., H. D. Ochs, and R. J. Wedgwood, Successful treatment of echovirus meningoencephalitis and myositis-fasciitis with intravenous immune globulin therapy in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia, N. Engl. J. Med. 304:1278–1281 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 50.
    Webster, A. D. B., J. H. Tripp, A. R. Hayward, A. D. Dayan, R. Doshi, E. E. Macintyre, and A. J. Tyrrell, Echovirus encephalitis and myositis in primary immunoglobulin deficiency, Arch. Dis. Child. 53:33–37 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 51.
    Bardelas, J. A., J. A. Winkelstein, D. S. Y. Seto, T. Tsai, and A. G. Rogal, Fatal ECHO 24 infection in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia. Relationship to dermatomyositis-like syndrome, J. Pediatr. 90:396–399 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 52.
    Rozhon, E. J., A. K. Wilson, and B. Jubelt, Characterization of genetic changes occurring in attenuated poliovirus 2 during persistent infection in mouse central nervous system, J. Virol. 50:137–144 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 53.
    Borca, M. V., F. M. Fernandez, A. M. Sadir, and A. A. Schudel, Reconstitution of immunosuppression mice with mononuclear cells from donors sensitized to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), Vet. Microbiol. 10:1–11 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 54.
    Greenberger, S. B., M. W. Harmon, R. B. Couch, P. E. Johnson, S. Z. Wilson, C. C. Dacso, K. Bloom, and J. Quarles, Prophylactic effect of low doses of human leukocytes interferon against infection with rhinovirus, J. Infect. Dis. 145:542–546 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 55.
    Chaturvedi, U. C., H. O. Tandon, and A. Mathur, Control of in vivo and in vitro spread of coxsackievurus B4 infection by sensitized spleen cells and antibody, J. Infect Dis. 138:181 -190 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 56.
    Woodruff, J. F., Lack of correlation between neutralizing antibody production and suppression of coxsackievirus B-3 replication in target organs: Evidence for involvement of mononuclear inflammatory cells in host defense, J. Immunol. 123:31–36 (1979).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 57.
    Huber, S. A., L. P. Job, and J. F. Woodruff, Sex-related differences in the pattern of coxsackievirus B-3 induced immune spleen cell cytotoxicity against virus-infected myofíbers, Infect. Immun. 32:68–73 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 58.
    Bruserud, O., M. Stenersen, and E. Thorsby, T lymphocyte responses to Coxsackie B4 and mumps virus. II. Immunoregulation by HLA-DR3 and DR4 associated restriction elements, Tissue Antigens 26:179–192 (1985).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 59.
    Woodruff, J. F., Viral myocarditis. A review, Am. J. Pathol. 101:425–483 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 60.
    Huber, S. A., L. P. Job, and J. F. Woodruff, In vitro cultures of coxsackievirus group B, type 3 immune spleen cells on infected endothelial cells and biological activity of the cultured cells in vivo, Infect. Immun. 43:567–573 (1984).Google Scholar
  60. 61.
    Huber, S. A., L. P. Job, K. R. Auld, and J. F. Woodruff, Sex-related differences in the rapid production of cytotoxic spleen cells active against uninfected myofíbers during coxsackievirus B-3 infection, J. Immunol. 126:1336–1340 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlo Garzelli
    • 1
  • Fulvio Basolo
    • 2
  • Donatella Matteucci
    • 3
  • Bellur S. Prabhakar
    • 4
  • Antonio Toniolo
    • 5
  1. 1.Institute of MicrobiologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Pathological AnatomyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  3. 3.Institute of HygieneUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  4. 4.Laboratory of Oral Medicine, National Institute of Dental ResearchNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  5. 5.Institute of MicrobiologyUniversity of SassariSassariItaly

Personalised recommendations