Quantitative Studies of the Growth of Metals on GaAs(110) Using RHEED
Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) has enjoyed a recent period of significant expansion of interest, due in large measure to its compatibility with molecular-beam epitaxy. Because of the favorable geometry (grazing angles of incidence and exit) it is easy to observe a diffraction pattern and thus to investigate qualitatively aspects of the growth in real time. The major use of RHEED in this sense has been to observe layer-by-layer growth in MBE and thus to calibrate the flux from the effusion source. It is evident from other papers in this volume that a considerable amount of information can be extracted about MBE growth. Most of this work has been restricted to A-on-A systems (e.g. Si-on-Si, Ge-on-Ge, GaAs-on-GaAs) where layer-by-layer growth is the rule rather than the exception. Whereas in principle LEED can as well be used to study layer-by-layer growth in real time by using a grazing geometry (and is then as powerful as RHEED, or even more so), there are overlayer systems in which RHEED is clearly the preferred technique. These are generally B-on-A systems in which the growth does not necessarily proceed by layers, but in which three-dimensional (3-D) crystallite growth and 2-D to 3-D transitions can occur. The ability of RHEED to give a transmission as well as a reflection pattern is the important feature in such measurements .
KeywordsReciprocal Lattice GaAs Surface Asperity Height RHEED Pattern Atomic Scattering Factor
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