Low Energy Scanning Electron Microscope

  • T. Ichinokawa
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 188)


Surface electron microscopy has been intensively developed by many workers using various types of electron optical systems. Typical techniques for surface imaging which have been reported are as follows:
  1. (1)

    reflection electron microscopy (REM) by the conventional transmission electron microscope (CTEM)[1–4];

  2. (2)

    scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with various types of electron detector systems[5–7];

  3. (3)

    low energy electron reflection microscopy (LEERM) using a mirror electron microscope (MEM)[8–10].



Scanning Tunneling Microscope Dark Field Image Scanning Tunneling Microscope Image Secondary Electron Image Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Ichinokawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied PhysicsWaseda UniversityShinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160Japan

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