Reflection Electron Microscopy in TEM and STEM Instruments

  • J. M. Cowley
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 188)


The techniques of reflection electron microscopy (REM) and scanning reflection electron microscopy (SREM) have been shown, in recent years, to have considerable potential as means for studying the structures of surfaces. Their objective is to take advantage of the high resolution capabilities of modern electron microscopes to reveal detail in the surfaces of large crystals with near-atomic resolution. In parallel with the imaging techniques, it is possible to make use of the diffraction and analytical techniques in much the same way as for transmission electron microscopy. Thus the possibility has arisen of obtaining correlated information regarding surface structure, composition and energetics with much higher spatial resolution than has been considered feasible in the past. The limitations of these techniques are, in some cases, severe. Some of the limitations are fundamental in that they arise from the nature of the interactions of the high energy (20–200 keV) electron beams with the specimen materials. Other limitations arise from the characteristics of the available instrumentation and these limitations may well be overcome in the near future.


Incident Beam Crystal Surface Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Diffract Beam Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Cowley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsArizona State UniversityTempeArizonaUSA

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