Two-Dimensional First-Order Phase Separation in an Epitaxial Layer

  • T.-M. Lu
  • S.-N. Yang
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 188)


Studying adsorbate ordering at the submonolayer level on clean surfaces is a crucial step in understanding the structure of epitaxial films during the initial stages of growth. An adsorbed atom interacts with other adsorbed atoms as well as with the substrate. The interactions are called adsorbated-adsorbate (A-A) and adsorbated-substrate (A-S) interactions, respectively. A simple nearest neighbor A-A attractive interaction can lead to the condensation of two-dimensional (2-D) overlayer islands with an (1 × 1) structure [1]. Many epitaxial systems (especially in the case of homoepitaxy) have this structure at appropriate substrate temperatures. In the electron diffraction techniques, all information on the (1×1) islands such as island shape and size distribution is contained in the angular distribution of the integral order beam intensity. Recent advancement in diffraction theory [2–5] allows one to extract the island size distribution from the integral order beam angular distribution of intensity. Two particularly interesting examples involving high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction study of submonolayer ordering are Si homoepitaxy by Grownwald and Henzler [6], and W homoepitaxy by Hahn, Clabes and Henzler [7]. Depending on the annealing temperature, a distribution of (1 x 1) islands were formed at a submonolayer coverage.


Free Energy Density Free Energy Barrier Regular Solution Model Electron Diffraction Technique Submonolayer Coverage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T.-M. Lu, G.-C. Wang and M. G. Lagally, Surface Sci., 92:133 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, J. Appl. Phys., 58:2184 (1985); ibid., 57:1121 (1985).ADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. S. Lent and P. I. Cohen, Surface Sci., 139:121 (1984); P. R. Pukite, C. S. Lent and P. I. Cohen, Surface Sci., 161:39 (1985).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Saloner and M. G. Lagally, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A2:935 (1984);ADSGoogle Scholar
  5. D. Saloner, P. K. Wu and M. G. Lagally, J. Vac. Sci. Technol., A3:1531 (1985).ADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    M. Henzler, Surface Sci., 152/153:963 (1985); ibid., 73:240 (1978).Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    K. D. Grownwald and M. Henzler, Surface Sci., 117:180 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 7.
    P. Hahn, J. Clabes and M. Henzler, J. Appl. Phys., 51:2079 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    See, for example, R. A. Swalin, “Thermodynamics of Solids”, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 141 (1972).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    J. W. Cahn, Trans. AIME, 242:166 (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    D. Stauffer and K. Binde, Advanc. Phys., 25:343 (1976);ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. K. Binder, Phys. Rev., B15:4425 (1977);ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. P. Mirold and K. Binder, Acta Metall., 25:1435 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 11.
    D. Rasmussen, J. Crystal Growth, 56:45 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 12.
    S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, Chem. Phys. Lett., 127:512 (1986).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 13.
    S.-N. Yang and T.-M. Lu, to be published.Google Scholar
  17. 14.
    J. M. Pimbley and T.-M. Lu, Surface Sci., 139:360 (1984).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • T.-M. Lu
    • 1
  • S.-N. Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Integrated Electronics, Physics DepartmentRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA
  2. 2.Center for Integrated Electronics, Materials Engineering DepartmentRensselaer Polytechnic InstituteTroyUSA

Personalised recommendations