Niosomes: A Putative Drug Carrier System
The hydrophobic effect provides the driving force for the formation of various types of molecular aggregate such as monolayers, hexagonal phases and micelles when surface active substances are placed in an aqueous environment. Vesicles then, are only one particular, albeit useful, type of molecular aggregate and it is now well established that the ability to form such closed structures is not a property unique to the phospholipids and other bilayer forming lipids of biological origin. Vesicles can be formed from a diverse range of amphiphilic substances and terms such as synthetic bilayers allude to the non-biological origin of such vesiculogens. Lecithins, the group of phospholipids most widely used for liposome preparation, are of course zwitterionic surfactants and representatives from the other major types of surfactant; anionic, cationic and non-ionic (Fig. 1) can also form analogous vesicular structures. The diversity of molecular species which can form bilayers and vesicles may be appreciated by consulting reviews by Kunitake (1986), Fuhrhop (1984) and Fendler (1982).
KeywordsVisceral Leishmaniasis Free Drug Zwitterionic Surfactant Dicetyl Phosphate Inverted Micelle
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Attwood, D., and Florence, A. T., 1983, “Surfactant Systems. Their Chemistry, Pharmacy and Biology,” Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
- Fendler, J. H., 1982, “Membrane Mimetic Chemistry,” Wiley, Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
- Hume, L., 1987, “A Comparative Study of Niosomes (Non-Ionic Surfactant Vesicles) and Liposomes: Their Stability in Biological Environments,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.Google Scholar
- Khand, L., Rogerson, A., Halbert, G. W., Baillie, A. J., and Florence, A. T., 1987, The effect of cholesterol on the release of doxorubicin from non-ionic surfactant vesicles (niosomes), J.Pharm.Pharmacol. Suppl., 39:41P.Google Scholar
- Rogerson, A., 1986, “A Physicochemical and Biological Evaluation of Non-Ionic Surfactant Vesicles (Niosomes),” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.Google Scholar
- Snyder, F., 1972, “Ether Lipids, Chemistry and Biology,” Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Vanlerberghe, G., Handjani-Vila, R. M., and Ribier, A., 1978, “Les Niosomes, une Nouvelle Famille de Vésicules a Base D’Amphiphiles Non-Ioniques,” Colloques Nationaux du C.N.R.S. No. 938:304.Google Scholar