Latex Beads as Vehicles for the Study of Free Radical Processes in Phagocytic Cells
Part of the
Basic Life Sciences
book series (BLSC, volume 49)
The phagocytosing human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) generates large quantities of oxidants: superoxide (HO2̇ and ·O 2 - , H2O2, and a chlorine-containing oxidant reputed to be hypochlorite. These oxidants are believed to aid in the killing of microorganisms since patients whose PMNs cannot undergo this “respiratory burst” suffer severe, recurrent infections. There appears to be good,1 but not unequivocable evidence for the participation of superoxide in bacterial killing by the human PMN. Extensive2 research has shown that ·O 2 - is neither a strong oxidant nor a strong reductant and, therefore, it is probably not a potent bactericide. The conjugate acid, HO$, should be sufficiently reactive3 to attack many components of the bacterial cell. Since the human PMN phagosome generally is assumed to be acidic, the acid-base equilibrium will be shifted toward HO2̇. However, the disproportionation reaction rate increases rapidly as the pH approaches the pKa of HO2̇, 4.8.3 It is not clear that attack on the susceptible bacterial cell components would be competitive with disproportionation.
KeywordsSinglet Oxygen Methyl Linoleate Respiratory Burst Iron Salt Latex Bead
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
R. B. Johnston, B. B. Keele, H. P. Misra, J. E. Lehmyer, L. S. Webb, R. L. Baehner, and K. V. Rajagopalan, The role of superoxide anion generation in phagocytic bactericidal activity, J. Clin. Invest.
55:1357 (1975).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
D. T. Sawyer and J. S. Valentine, How super is superoxide? Acc. Chem. Res.
14:393 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
B. H. J. Bielski, D. E. Cabelli, R. L. Arudi, and A. B. Ross, Reactivity of HO2
radicals in aqueous solution, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data
14:1041 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
J. A. Badwey and M. L. Karnovsky, Active oxygen species and the functions of phagocytic leukocytes, Annu. Rev. Biochem.
49:695 (1980).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
H. J. Forman and M. J. Thomas, Oxidant production and bactericidal activity of phagocytes, Annu
48:669 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
C. C. Winterbourn, Myeloperoxidase as an effective inhibitor of hydroxyl radical production, J. Clin
78:545 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
B. E. Britigan, G. M. Rosen, Y. Chai, and M. S. Cohen, Do human neutrophils make hydroxyl radical? J. Biol
261:4426 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
M. J. Thomas, P. S. Shirley, C. C. Hedrick, and L. R. DeChatelet, Role of free radical processes in stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, Biochemistry
25:8042 (1986).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
J. M. Gebicki and B. H. J. Bielski, Comparison of the capacities of the perhydroxyl and the superoxide radicals to initiate chain oxidation of linoleic acid, J. Am. Chem
103:7020 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
M. J. Thomas and W. A. Pryor, Singlet oxygen oxidation of methyl linoleate: isolation and characteriation of the NaBH4
-reduced products, Lipids
15:544 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
A. M. Held, D. J. Halko, and J. K. Hurst, Mechanisms of chlorine oxidation of hydrogen peroxide, J. Am. Chem
100:5732 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
T. Kajiwara and D. R. Kearns, Direct spectroscopic evidence for a deuterium solvent effect on the lifetime of singlet oxygen in water, J. Am. Chem
95:5886 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
C. S. Foote, F. C. Shook, and R. A. Abakerli, Chemistry of superoxide ion: singlet oxygen is not a major product of dismutation. J. Am. Chem
102:2503 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
M. J. Thomas, K. Mehl, and W. A. Pryor, The role of superoxide in xanthine oxidase-induced autooxidation of linoleic acid, J. Biol
257:8343 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
R. L. Arudi, B. H. J. Bielski, and A. O. Allen, Search for singlet oxygen luminescence in the disproportionation of HO2
, Photochem. Photobiol.
39:703 (1984).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
T. Nagano and I. Fridovich, Does the aerobic xanthine oxidase reaction generate singlet oxygen? Photochem. Photobiol.
41:33 (1985).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
© Plenum Press, New York 1988