Immunohistochemistry and Correlation with Plasma Levels of CA 19-9 and CEA in Gastrointestinal Tumors
Since the first separation from fetal colon tissue and tissue of carcinoma of colon, the importance of CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) for the detection and follow-up of malignant tumors has grown steadily (1). The antigenic determinant most likely resides in the peptide portion of the molecule. The specificity of CEA however, is influenced and diminished by various other glycoprotein antigens cross reacting with antisera to CEA. Utilizing hybridoma technology, a new antigen was obtained after immunization of mice with cells of SW 1116 tumor cell line of colon carcinoma. This antibody was chosen because of its specific reactivity with gastrointestinal carcinomas (2). Since the introduction of CA 19-9, the spectrum of clinically relevant tumor-associated antigens has significantly widened. As shown in recent investigations, CA 19-9 reacts partially complementary to CEA and has gained clinical importance in the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors and metastatic tumors. The immunohistochemical validation of CEA was first performed in 1975 by the indirect immunoperoxidase method in formaldehyde-fixed tissue (3). However, until now there is no direct comparison of immunohistochemical stainings of CEA and CA 19-9 in correlation to their corresponding serum levels, histopathological grading and staging. This problem has recently become important with the introduction of monoclonal F(ab′)2 fragments of CEA and CA 19-9 for clinical immunoscintigraphy and immunotherapy applications (4). The presence and localization of the tumor-associated antigens in the tumors to be treated, has to be confirmed first by immunohistochemistry for the selection of the most suitable monoclonal antibody.
KeywordsFormalin Pancreatitis Paraffin Gall Hematoxylin
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