Radioimmunotherapy of Cancer: Historical Perspectives and Prospects for the Future

  • William H. Beierwaltes
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 152)


The purpose of this presentation is to review our most important accomplishments in our Nuclear Medicine Division from 1951 through 1986 (35 years) in our attempts to develop I-131 labeled antibodies to treat cancer. These modest successes are compared with our substantial successes in treating 781 patients for well-differentiated thyroid cancer with Na I-131 since 1946, 27 patients with metastatic carcinoma of the adrenal and 11 patients with neuroblastoma with I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine since 1980 and 22 patients with brain tumors with NaCrPO4 P-32 since 1983. It is hoped that these comparisons will furnish helpful guidelines for further development of radiolabeled antibodies to detect and treat cancers.


Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Carcinoma Lymphokine Activate Killer Radioiodine Therapy Cheek Pouch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    S. M. Larson, J. A. Carrasquillo, and J. C. Reynolds, Radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy, Cancer Investigation 2:363–381 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. B. Vial, and W. Callahan, The effect of some I-131 tagged antibodies on human melanoblastoma: Preliminary Report, Univ. Mich. Med. Bull. 20:284–286, July (1956).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    W. H. Beierwaltes, and M. Khazaeli, Radioimmunotherapy of Cancer: Historical Perspectives and Prospects for the Future, in: “Radioimmunoimaging and Radioimmunotherapy”, B. Rhodes and S. Burchiel, eds., Elsevier North Holland, Inc., New York, pp. 419–435 (1983).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. A. Miller, D. G. Maloney, R. Warnke, and R. Levy, Treatment of beta-cell lymphoma with monoclonal-idiotype antibody, N. Engl. J. Med. 306:517–522 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Z. Steplewski, D. Herlyn, G. Mariel, and H. Koprowski, Hypothesis: Macrophages as effector cells for human tumor destruction mediated by monoclonal antibody, Hybridoma 2:1 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    W. B. Coley, The treatment of inoperable sarcoma by bacterial toxins (the mixed toxins of Streptococcus of erysipelas and the Bacillus prodigiosus), Proc. Roy. Soc. Med, Surg. Sect. 3:1–48 (1909–1910).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Jelaszewicz, G. Pulsever, W. Roszkowski (Eds), “Bacteria and Cancer”, Academic Press, London, pp 1–24 (1982).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J.D. Quinones, G. Mizejewski, W.H. Beierwaltes, Choriocarcinoma scanning using radiolabeled antibody to chorionic gonadotropin. J Nucl Med 12:69–75 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.M. Goldenberg, D.F. Preston, F.J. Primus, H.J. Hansen, Photoscan localization of GW-39 tumors in hamsters using radiolabeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G. Cancer Res 34:1–9 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Hoffer, K. Lathrop, C. Beckerman, V.S. Fang, S. Refetoff, Use of 131I-CEA antibody as a tumor scanning agent. J Nucl Med 15:323–327 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.M. Goldenberg, F. DeLand, E. Kim, S. Bennett, F.J. Primus, J.R. van Nagell, Jr., N. Estes, P. DeDimone, P. Rayburn, Use of radiolabeled antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen for the detection and localization of diverse cancers by external photoscanning. N Engl J Med 298:1384–1388 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F.H. DeLand, E.E. Kim, G. Simmons, D.M. Goldenberg, Imaging approach in radioimmunodetection. Cancer Res 40:3046–3049 (1980).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Kohler, C. Milstein: Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature (Lond) 256:495 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M.B. Khazaeli, B.G. England, R.C. Dieterle, G.D. Nordblom, G.A. Kabza, W.H. Beierwaltes, Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody which distinguishes the B-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (BhCG) in the presence of hCG. Endocrinol 109:(4) 1290–1292 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.B. Khazaeli, L.E. Brown, G.A. Kabza, E.W. Sargent, W.H. Beierwaltes, Selection of a monoclonal antibody to hCG which localizes in human choriocarcinoma growing in the Syrian hamster cheek pouch. Hybridoma 3(1):41–48 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Hattori, M. Fukase, H. Yoshimi, S. Matsukura, H. Imura, Ectopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin in malignant tumors. Cancer 42:2328–2333 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W.H. Beierwaltes, R.H. Nishiyama, N.W. Thompson, J.E. Copp, A. Kubo, Survival time and “cure” in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases: Statistics following University of Michigan therapy. J Nucl Med 23:561 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    J.C. Sisson, B. Shapiro, W.H. Beierwaltes, N. Nakajo, J. Glowniak, T.J. Mangner, J.E. Carey, D.P. Swanson, J.E. Copp, W.G. Satterlee, D.M. Wieland, Treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma with a new radiopharmaceutical. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 96:209–217 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J.C. Sisson, B. Shapiro, W.H. Beierwaltes, J.V. Glowniak, M. Nakajo, T.J. Mangner, J.E. Carey, D.P. Swanson, J.E. Copp, W.G. Satterlee, D.M. Wieland, Radiopharmaceutical treatment of malignant pheochromocytoma.J Nucl Med 24:197–206 (1984).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. Sisson, B. Shapiro, J. Glowniak, W.H. Beierwaltes, T. Mangner, D. Wieland, J. Carey, N. Petry, J. Copp, P. Eyre, 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment of malignant pheochromocytomas. Society of Nuclear Medicine 31st Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, June 5–8, 1984, J Nucl Med 25(5):P72 (1984).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    W.H. Beierwaltes, Horizons in radionuclide therapy: 1985 update. J Nucl Med 26:421–427, April (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D.M. Goldenberg, E.E. Kim, F.H. DeLand, Human chorionic gonadotropin radioantibodies in the radioimmunodetection of cancer and for disclosure of occult metastases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:7754–7758 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J.P. Brown, R.G. Woodbury, C.E. Hart. I. Hellstrom, Quantitative analysis of melanoma-associated antigen P97 in normal and neoplastic tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:539–543 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R.C. Bast, Jr., M. Feeney, H. Lazarus, L.M. Nadler, R.B. Colvin, R.C. Knapp, Reactivity of a monoclonal antibody with human ovarian carcinoma. J Clin Invest 68:1331–1337 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M.B. Khazaeli, W.H. Beierwaltes, G.S. Pitt, G.A. Kabza, A.F. LoBuglio, Development and characterization of a monoclonal antibody to human embryonal carcinoma. J. Urol (in press).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    R.L. Wahl, M.B. Khazaeli, A.F. LoBuglio, R.A. Patillo, M.J. Tuscan, W.H. Beierwaltes, Radioimmunodetection of occult gestational choriocarcinoma. Am J Obst & Gynec (Submitted January 28, 1986).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Stya, R. Wahl, W.H. Beierwaltes, Three monoclonal antibodies reactive with human small cell carcinoma of the lung developed using live cells as immunogens and screening agents. Cancer Res (Submitted May 21, 1985).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.L. Wahl. K.A. Kimmel, W.H. Beierwaltes, T.E. Carey, Radioimmunodiagnosis of human-derived squamous cell carcinoma. Radiology (Submitted April 14, 1986).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    J.S. Scott, K.E. Hainan, J. Schimmins, P. Kostaki, H. McKenzie, Measurement of dose to thyroid carcinoma metastases from radio-iodine therapy. Br J Radiol 43:256–262 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E.E. Potchen, Radioiodine therapy. In: “The Thyroid”, Werner SC, Ingbar SH (Eds), 3rd Ed., New York: Harper and Row, pp 467–475.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    W.H. Blahd, Treatment of malignant thyroid disease. Sem Nucl Med 9:95–99 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K.F. Koral, R.S. Adler, J.E. Carey, W.H. Beierwaltes, 131I treatment of thyroid cancer: Absorbed dose calculation from post-therapy scans. J Nucl Med 27:1207–1211 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H.R. Maxon, S.R. Thomas, V.S. Hertzberg, J.G. Kereiakes, I.V. Chen, M.I. Sperling, E.L. Saenger, Relation between effective radiation dose and outcome of radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med 309 (16):937–941 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    R.J. Blair, W.H. Beierwaltes, L.M. Lieberman, C.M. Boyd, R.E. Counsell, P.A. Weinhold, V.M. Varma, Radiolabeled cholesterol as an adrenal scanning agent. J Nucl Med 12:176–182, April (1971).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    S.D. Sarkar, W.H. Beierwaltes, R.D. Ice, G.B. Basmadjian, K.R. Hetzel, W.P. Kennedy, M.M. Mason, A new and superior adrenal imaging agent, NP-59. J Nucl Med 16:1038 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    D.M. Wieland, L.E. Brown, M.D. Tobes, W.L. Rogers, D.D. March, T.J. Mangner, D.P. Swanson, W.H. Beierwaltes, Imaging the primate adrenal medulla with (131I) and (131I) meta-iodobenzylguanidine. J Nucl Med 22:358–364 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R.L. Wahl, C.W. Parker, G.W. Philpott, Improved radioimaging and tumor localization with monoclonal F(ab′)2. J Nucl Med 24:317–325 (1983).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    S.M. Larson, J.A. Carrasquillo, K.A. Krohn, J.P. Brown, R.W. McGuffin, J.M. Ferens, M.M. Graham, L.D. Hill, P.L. Beaumier, K.E. Hellstrom, I. Hellstrom, Localization of 131I labeled P97-specific Fab fragments in human melanoma as a basis for radiotherapy. J Clin Invest 72:2101–2114 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    W.H. Beierwaltes WH, The treatment of thyroid carcinoma with radioactive iodine. Sem Nucl Med 8:79–94 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    W.H. Beierwaltes, R. Rabbani, C. Dmuchowski, R.V. Lloyd, P. Eyre, S. Mallette, An analysis of “ablation of thyroid remnants” with I-131 in 511 patients from 1947–1986: The University of Michigan experience. J Nucl Med 25:1287–1293, December (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    B. Shapiro, L. VonMoll, J. McEwan, J. Sisson, R. Hutchinson, M. Gross, W.H. Beierwaltes, N.W. Thompson, Diagnosis and therapy of neuroblastoma with 131I-MIBG uptake in a wide spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors other than pheochromocytoma. European Nuclear Medicine Congress, September 2–5 (1986).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    W.R. Shapiro, Introduction: Brain tumors. Sem in Oncol 13:13 (1986).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    V.T. DeVita, Jr, The James Ewing Lecture: The relationship between tumor mass and resistance to chemotherapy. Implications for surgical adjuvant treatment of cancer. Cancer 51:1209–1220 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A.A. Al-Saadi, W.H. Beierwaltes, Sequential cytogenetic changes in the evolution of transplanted thyroid tumors to metastatic carcinoma in the Fischer rat. Cancer Res 27:1831–1842 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    W.H. Beierwaltes, A.A. Al-Saadi, Sequential cytogenetic changes in the development of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Proc Second Imperial Cancer Res Fund Sympos, London, 1967, Young W and Inman DR (Eds), London, Academic Press, pp 319–344 (1968).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    P.C. Nowell, The clonal evolution of tumor cell populations. Science 194:23–28 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    P.M. Capone, L.D. Papsidero, T.M. Chu, Relationship between antigen density and immunotherapeutic response elicted by monoclonal antibodies against solid tumors. J Nat Cancer Inst 72:673–677 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    M. Bregni, P. DeFabriitis, V. Roso, J. Greenberger, J. Lipton, L. Nodier, L. Rothstein, J. Ritz, R.C. Bast Jr., Elimination of damaging tumor cells from human bone marrow using a combination of monoclonal antibody: Ricin A chain conjugates. Cancer Res 46:1208–1213 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    R.D. Leeper, Controversies in treatment of thyroid cancer today. N.Y. Memorial Hospital approach. Thyroid Today, July/August 1982.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    E.E. Pochin, The occurrence of leukemia following radioiodine therapy. In: “Advances in Thyroid Research”, (Ed) Pitt-Dinn, pp 393–397, New York: Pergamon Press (1961).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    W.H. Knospe, V.M.S. Rayudu, M. Cardello, A.M. Friedman, Bone marrow scanning with 52 Iron (52Fe): Regeneration and extension after ablative doses or radiotherapy. Cancer 37:1432–1442 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. Rubin, S. Landman, E. Moyer, B. Keller, S. Cicrio, Bone marrow regeneration and extension after extended field irradiation in Hodgkin’s Disease. Cancer 32:699–711 (1973).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    J.N. Weinstein, M.A. Steller, A.M. Keenan, D.G. Covell, M.E. Key, S.M. Sieber, R.K. Oldham, K.M. Kwang, R.J. Parker, Monoclonal antibodies in the lymphatics: Selective delivery to lymph node metastases of a solid tumor. Science 222:423–426 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    D.E. Bullard, M. Bourdon, D.D. Bigner, Comparison of various methods for delivering radiolabeled monoclonal antibody to normal rat brain. J Neurosurg 61:901–911 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    D.R. Groothuis, J.M. Fischer, N.A. Vick, D.A. Bigner, Comparative permeability of different glioma models to horseradish peroxidase. Cancer Treat Rep 65(Suppl 2):13–18 (1981).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    C.C. Badger, K.A. Krohn, A.V. Peterson, H. Shulman. I.D. Bernstein, Experimental radiotherapy of murine lymphoma with 131I-labeled antithy 1.1 monoclonal antibody. Cancer Res 45:1536–1544 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    M.A. Steller, R.J. Parker, D.G. Conell, O.D. Holtn, III, A.M. Keenan S.M. Sieber, J.N. Weinstein, Optimization of monoclonal antibody delivery via the lymphatics: The dose dependence. Cancer Res 46: 18301834 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    D.S. Ettinger, S.E. Order, M.D. Wharam, M.K. Parker, J.L. Klein, P.K. Leichner, Phase I–II study of isotopic immunoglobulin therapy for primary liver cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 66:289–297 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    S.E. Order SE, Radioimmunoglobulin therapy of cancer. Comprehensive Therapy 10(1):9–18 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.W. Gyves, H.A. Ziessman, W.D. Ensminger, J.H. Thrall, J.E. Niederhuber, J.W. Keyes, Jr., S. Walker, Definition of hepatic tumor microcirculation by single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). J Nucl Med 25:972–977 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    T.C. Meeker, J. Lowder, D.G. Maloney, R.A. Miller, K. Thielemans, R. Warnke, R. Levy R, A clinical trial of anti-idiotype therapy for B-cell malignancy. Blood 65:1349–1363 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    G.T. Stevenson, E.V. Elliott, F.K. Stevenson, Idiotypic determinants on the surface immunoglobulin of neoplastic lymphocytes: A therapeutic target. Fed Proc 36:2268 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    T.J. Hamblin, A.K. Abdul-Ahad, J. Gordon, F.K. Stevenson, G.T. Stevenson, Preliminary experience in treating lymphocytic leukemia with antibody to immunoglobulin idiotypes on the cell surface. Br J Cancer 42:495 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    C.C. Badger, K.A. Krohn, A.V. Peterson, H. Shulman. I.D. Bernstein, Experimental radiotherapy of murine lymphoma with 131I-labeled anti-thy 1.1 monoclonal antibody. Cancer Res 45:1536–1544 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    R.A. Miller, A.R. Oseroff, P.T. Strotte, R. Levy : Monoclonal antibody therapeutic trials in seven patients with T-cell lymphoma. Blood 62:988–995 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    K.A. Foon, R.W. Schroff, S.A. Sherwin, R.K. Oldham, P.A. Bunn, H.M. Hsu, Monoclonal antibody therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and T-cell lymphoma: Preliminary observations. In: “Monoclonal Antibodies and Cancer”, BD Boss, RE Lanzman, Towbridge IS, Dulbecco R, (Eds), New York, Academic Press, pp 39–52 (1983).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    P.A. Bunn, Jr., J.A. Carrasquillo, A.M. Keenam, R.W. Schroff, K.A. Foon, S.M. Hsu, A.F. Gazdar, J.C. Reynolds, P. Perentesis, S.M. Larson, Imaging of T-cell lymphoma by radiolabeled monoclonal antibody. Lancet 2:1219–1221 (Letter) (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    P. Bunn, J. Carrasquillo, J. Mulshine, A. Keenan, K. Foon, R. Schross, J. Reynolds, S. Larson, Successful imaging of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) patients with intravenous IIIIn-T101. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 4: 221 (1985).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    J.T. Kemshead, A. Goldman, D. Jones, J. Pritchard, J.D. Malpas, I. Gordon, J.F. Malone, G.D. Hurley, F. Breatnoch, Therapeutic application of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody UJ13A in children with disseminated neuroblastoma — A phase 1 study. In: “Advances in Neuroblastoma Research, Alan R. Liss, Inc., pp 533–544 (1985).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    A. Goldman, G. Vivian, I. Gordon, J. Pritchard, J.T. Kemshead, Immunolocalization of neuroblastoma using radiolabeled antibody. J Pediatrics (In press).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    N.K.V. Cheung, F. Miraldi, J. Neely, Tumor immunotherapy of human neuroblastoma in mice with I-131 labelled monoclonal antibodies. Radiology 153(P):178, November (1984).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    N-K. Cheung, N. Berger, P. Coccia, S. Kallick, H. Lazarus, F. Miraldi, U. Saarinen, S. Strandjord, Murine monoclonal antibody (Mab) specific for GD2 ganglioside: A Phase I trial in patients with neuroblastoma, melanoma and osteogenic sarcoma, Proc. AACR 27:318 (Abstract #1260), March (1986).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    P.L. Hagan, S.E. Halpern, R.O. Dillman, D.L. Shawler, D.E. Johnson, A. Chen, L. Krishnan, J. Frincke, R.M. Bartholomew, G.S. David, D. Carlo, Tumor size: Effect of monoclonal antibody uptake in tumor models. J Nucl Med 27:422–427 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    D.E. Bullard, G. Yaney Gillespie, M.S. Mahaley, D.D. Bigner, Immunobiology of human gliomas. Sem in Oncol 13:94–109 (1986).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    P.J. Moldofsky, H.F. Sears, C.B. Mulhearn Jr., N.D. Hammond, J. Powe, R.A. Gatenby, Z. Steplewski, H. Koprowski, Detection of metastatic tumor in normal-sized retroperitoneal lymph nodes by monoclonal antibody imaging. N. Engl J Med 311:106–107 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    V. Taasan, B. Shapiro, J.A. Taren, W.H. Beierewaltes, P. McKeever, R.L. Wahl, J.E. Carey, N. Petry, S. Mallette: P32 treatment of Grade IV cystic astrocytomas: Technique and preliminary application. J Nucl Med 26:1335–1338 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    H. Allen, L.H. Hempelman, Jr., N.A. Vomack, The effect of insoluble radioactive phosphorus (chromic phosphate) when applied interstitially in treatment of adenocarcinoma of the mamma in mice. Cancer Res 5: 239246 (1945).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    V.C. Taasan, J.A. Taren, W.H. Beierwaltes, P. McKeever, T.W. Hood, B. Shapiro, R.L. Wahl, C. Dmuchowski, R. Rabbani, Response to Stereotactic Treatment of 14 Patients with Brain Tumors with Na Cr PO-4 — P-32. Scientific Exhibit, Society of Nuclear Medicine 33rd Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., June 22–25 (1986).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    D. Herlyn, H. Koprowski, Ig G2a monoclonal antibodies inhibit tumor growth through interaction with effector cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:4761–4765 (1982).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    D.O. Adams, T. Hall, Z. Steplewski, H. Koprowski, Tumors undergoing rejection induced by monoclonal antibodies of the Ig G 2a isotype contain increased numbers of macrophages activated for a distinctive form of antibody-dependent cytolysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 3506–3510 (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    I. Kawase, M. Komato, S. Yokato, T. Ogura, S. Kishimoto S: Macrophage tumoricidal activity as a possible antitumor mechanism associated with the local injection of allogenic spleen cells into rats. Cancer Res 46:1047–1054 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    S.K.Jacobs, D.J. Wilson, P.L. Kornblath, E.A. Grimm, Interleukin-2 or autologous lymphokine-activated killer cell treatment of malignant glioma: Phase I trial. Cancer Res 46:2101–2104 (1986).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    R.K. Oldham, R.V. Smalley, The role of interferon in the treatment of cancer. In: “Research, Clinical Applications and Regulatory Considerations”, Foon KC, Nogerchi PO, Lise D (Eds), Interferon: Research, clinical applications and regulatory considerations, Elsevier, New York, pp 191–205 (1984).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    H. Young, A. Kaplan, W. Regelson, Immunotherapy with autologous white cell infusions (“lymphocytes”) in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme: A preliminary report. Cancer (Phila) 40:1037–1044 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    R. Loevinger, E.M. Japha, G.L. Brownell, Discrete radioisotope sources. In: “Radiation Dosimetry”, Hine GJ, Brownell BL (Eds), Academic Press, New York, pp 713–714 (1956).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    M.J. Berger, Distribution of absorbed dose around point sources of electrons and beta particles in water and other media. J Nucl Med MIRD Suppl. Number 7, 12:5–23 (1971).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    J.C. Sisson, Radionuclide therapy for malignancy: Influences of physical characteristics of radionuclides and experience with radiolabeled meta-iodobenzylguanidine. Clin in Oncol 5: March (1986).Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    W.H. Beierwaltes, P.C. Johnson, A.J. Solari, “Clinical Use of Radioisotopes”, WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 298–299 (1957).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    T.C. Everson, W.H. Cole, Spontaneous regression of cancer. A study and abstract of reports in the World medical literature and of personal communications concerning spontaneous regressions of malignant disease, WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia (1966).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    S.A. Rosenberg, Adoptive immunotherapy of cancer using lymphokine activated killer cells and recombinant Interleukin-2, Important Advances in Oncology, 1986, (Eds. V.T. DeVita, Jr., S. Hellman, S. Rosenberg), J.B. Lippincott Co., Phil., 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Beierwaltes
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Nuclear MedicineUniversity of Michigan HospitalsAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations