Preclinical and Clinical Studies with Indium-111 anti-CEA Antibodies and Fragments

  • Samuel E. Halpern
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 152)


It is customary to begin discussions of radioimmunodetection by giving proper credit to those who pioneered the field. That being the case, I too will mention the works of the great Paul Ehrlich (1) and David Pressman (2) who are our intellectual fathers. In doing so however, I must tell you that we would have done them greater honor had we carried the field further than we have to date. With the possible exception of the invention of monoclonal antibody technology (3) and a few new labeling methods, we remain far from making the “magic bullet” concept a reality. Yet we have not been without effort. Since the time of Pressman’s early communications (1953), many reports have indicated that iodine-labeled anti-tumor antibodies could be acquired by tumors in various animal species (4–15). This work has been meritorious and confusing. For example, nonspecific globulins as well as specific antibodies localize in tumors (16). Further, non-globulin proteins such as fibrin (17–19) and fibrinogen (20–22), similarly localize in tumors, and have been used for imaging. Thus, there is a portion of the radiopharmaceutical uptake by the tumor which has a basis other than antigen:antibody interaction.


Nude Mouse Carcinoembryonic Antigen Tumor Detection Tumor Blood Flow Vascular Compartment 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samuel E. Halpern
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.VA Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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