Criteria for the Selection of Nuclides for Radioimmunotherapy
For a number of years, the scientific and medical communities have contemplated the possibility of using radionuclides for therapy in cancer. The use of sealed sources, such as radium needles and capsules, is now commonplace. With the exception of a relatively selected number of applications, the hopes for employing unsealed sources are still unrealized. The problem has two components: the first, and the subject of this conference, is the discovery of a proper carrier molecule with which to bring the radionuclide into the vicinity of the cancer; the second involves interactions between the radionuclide and its biological environment, the radiation biology of the decay products. The accurate estimation of absorbed dose requires information about: the antibody — its specificity, immunoreactivity and stability; the biology of the cancer cell — the number of accessible antigenic sites and their affinity, the homogeneity of antibody presentation among the cancer cells, internalization and modulation of the antigen antibody complex, stability of the complex, stability and translocation of the label out of the complex, and the relationship of antigenicity to the cell cycle; the degree of natural immune surveillance; and the microenvironment of the tumor — its vascularity, its vascular permeability, oxygenation, microscopic organization and architecture including the mobility of the cells, their location and accessibility to intralymphatic, intraperitoneal, intracerebral and intramedullary pathways.
KeywordsAlpha Particle Relative Biological Effectiveness Beta Particle Pyrimidine Nucleoside ICRP Publication
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