Bacterial Characteristics and Follicle Surface Structure: Their Roles in Peyer’s Patch Uptake and Transport of Vibrio cholerae
Structural and functional specializations in the intestinal mucosal barrier over Peyer’s patches facilitate contact with and uptake of adherent luminal particles and soluble molecules. These specializations include local reduction in mucus-secreting goblet cells, interruption of the muscularis mucosae by lymphoid follicles(which may alter mucosal motility), and the presence of M cells. M cells are epithelial cells with irregular, widely spaced microvilli, reduced or absent lysosomes, an active transcellular transport system, and a pliable basolateral surface usually invaginated by lymphoid cells. At their luminal surfaces M cells form coated and uncoated vesicles, which are transported to intercellular spaces in the follicle epithelium where initial contact of intestinal antigen and lymphoid cells occurs. The mucus blanket which lies across the microvilli of enterocytes (intestinal absorptive cells) is broken over M cells, allowing microorganisms and particles to approach M cell luminal membranes. Studies with labeled lectins have demonstrated a thin but detectable glycocalyx coat on M cell membranes. Sugars detected by these lectins include beta-D-galactose (Ricinus communis agglutinin), sialic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (wheat germ agglutinin), but not alpha-D-mannose or alpha-D-glucose (Con A binds only sparsely). Cationized ferritin distributes evenly on M cell luminal membranes indicating that anionic sites are present.
KeywordsLymphoid Follicle Secretory Component Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Ricinus Communis Agglutinin Cell Microvillus
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