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Radiation Carcinogenesis

  • R. Timothy Mulcahy

Abstract

Ionizing radiation is perhaps the most universally recognized and most intensely studied carcinogen known to man. Certainly no other single environmental carcinogen has attracted as much public attention, elicited such strong emotional responses, or been the subject of more regulatory legislation than radiation. Public awareness of the cancer-inducing property of radiation is relatively recent and is certainly linked to the experience of the survivors of the atomic bomb detonations at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and of persons exposed to fall-out secondary to nuclear weapons testing. Public concern over radiation safety has become even more acute with the proliferation of nuclear arms, the growth of the nuclear power industry and recent accidents at nuclear power plants, such as Chernobyl. However, the oncogenic potential of radiation exposure was recognized early in its history, with the first published report of radiation-induced cancer appearing in the scientific literature shortly after the turn of the twentieth century.1 Indeed, it is believed that Madam Curie and her daughter Irene both succumbed to leukemia attributable to intense radiation exposure associated with their pioneering work with radioactivity. Since these early days in radiation research, the carcinogenic properties of ionizing radiation have been repeatedly substantiated in human populations, experimental animals, and, more recently, tissue-culture systems. More importantly, this accumulating evidence for the cancer-inducing ability of radiation has been accompanied by a growing understanding of potential mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis, factors influencing the expression of radiation-induced neoplasia, and the risks associated with low-level exposures. It is the intent of this chapter to review the human and experimental experience in the area of radiation carcinogenesis, summarizing cellular and tissue responses, and discussing potential mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced neoplasms.

Keywords

Thyroid Cancer Neoplastic Transformation Transformation Frequency Chemical Carcinogen Tumor Induction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Timothy Mulcahy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human OncologyUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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