Oncogene Activation and Expression during Carcinogenesis in Liver and Pancreas

  • James D. Yager
  • Joanne Zurlo


Knowledge of the carcinogenic process has been dramatically increased by the application of recombinant DNA technology and the discovery that mutated cellular genes capable of causing neoplastic transformation can be isolated from spontaneously appearing and carcinogen-induced human and experimental animal tumors. That single genes can cause neoplastic transformation was first demonstrated in studies conducted on acutely transforming retroviruses.1,2 Such viruses, the first being the Rous sarcoma virus, were shown to carry single genes, termed oncogenes (see Chapter 13), that were responsible for their transforming ability. It was also clearly shown that these retroviral oncogenes had homology to cellular genes and were in fact initially derived from cellular genes by retroviral transduction. The cellular homologs of the retroviral oncogenes are referred to as cellular oncogenes or proto-oncogenes. To date, about 20 retroviral oncogenes, each originating from a cellular precursor proto-oncogene, have been identified.3


Oncogene Activation Transforming Activity Carcinogenic Process Oncogene Expression Pancreatic Carcinogenesis 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • James D. Yager
    • 1
  • Joanne Zurlo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyDartmouth Medical SchoolHanoverUSA

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