Links between Development Perspectives and Population Growth
As indicated in Chapter 1, scholars in the fields of population and of development largely went their separate ways until relatively recently, with few attempts to bring together the two fields. This divergence was reflected in the scant attention paid to population variables in economic and social development planning and in the relatively superficial concern with development issues in population studies. Until the mid-1970s, “population and development” served primarily as a slogan invoked at international conferences. Over the past decade, however, concern with the complex interrelationships between population and development has generated a voluminous literature, replete with controversy and rhetoric as well as scientific reports on systematic research and analysis.
KeywordsDevelopment Perspective Transition Theory Demographic Transition Fertility Decline Family Planning Program
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- 1.Caldweli (1976:323) maintains that modern demographic-transition theory was “born almost in mature form in a paper written by Notestein in 1945.”Google Scholar
- 2.The meaning of “fertility” in this discussion foll~ws customary demographic usage; namely, it refers to the rate, or frequency, at which women bear children. More specifically, the fertility rate (also called the general fertility rate) is the number of live births per 1000 women aged 15–44 years (in some countries, the age range used is 15–49) in a given year.Google Scholar
- 3.Although the demographic paradigm attributed mortality declines in Europe largely to death control, it should be noted that development-related factor s in addition to health and sanitation services contributed to these declines. Prominent among these factors were improved transportation and communication facilities, the shift from home- to factory-based employment, and the advent of scientific agriculture. Freedman (1979) has noted some of these factors, both in Europe and in such LDCs as China and Sri Lanka, as well as the state of Kerala in India, that motivated lower fertility in these places; they facilitated mortality declines as well.Google Scholar
- 4.This description of the stages of demographic-transition theory largely follows that of Teitelbaum (1975).Google Scholar