Although there may be terminological differences, as well as conceptual differences, regarding development approaches, current development thinking, at least on the part of the international development assistance community, is oriented to the promotion of equity in national development strategies. Such strategies would be designed to help both the poor and the society as a whole achieve their development objectives, whatever each less-developed country (LDC) decides its specific objectives should be. The prospects for adoption of equity-oriented development policies by Third World governments vary widely. The range includes such variations as the following: regimes that have no concern with reduction of poverty, but employ their concentrated power to benefit only the ruling elite; regimes that may be open to adoption of equity-oriented programs, but in which resistance by vested interest groups will have to be overcome by coalitions of reformist groups; and regimes that can be said to have already done well in promoting equity, on the basis of such indicators as life expectancy and literacy rates, as well as increases in income per capita. In this chapter, consideration is given to a series of factors that are relevant, historically and currently, to the prospects for implementation of equity-oriented development policies.
KeywordsExternal Debt Gross National Product Official Development Assistance Development Assistance Committee Urban Bias
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- 1.See, for example, World Development Report 1980 (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1980a) for a description of small farm projects in India and Brazil in which “small is productive.”Google Scholar
- 2.For a recent publication of the principal message of Lipton’s book, see Lipton (1984).Google Scholar
- 5.Streeten and Burki (1978) discuss these and other operational issues.Google Scholar