Brightness Limits for Ion Sources
The status of high-current sources for ions from gaseous elements has by now reached quite satisfactory levels of reliability, and several basic source types are available that offer good results, see Keller (1985). Processing of materials with low vapor pressure or of corrosive gases still exhibits its inherent difficulties, but also in this area considerable progresses have been achieved, using two-gas techniques as did Shubaly et al. (1985) or hot running sources with internal oven or external supply as described by Keller et al. (1986). In consequence, it seems that the main brightness-limiting factor for ion beams as they are created by the sources is not so much determined by the plasma generator itself but rather by the extraction system used to actually form the beam.
KeywordsExtraction System Emittance Pattern Beam Formation Extraction Voltage Absolute Emittance
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