Advertisement

Interaction of Growth Hormone and Nutritional Intake in Facilitating Nitrogen Conservation and Promoting Lipolysis

  • David R. Clemmons
  • David K. Snyder
  • Louis E. Underwood
Part of the Serono Symposia, USA book series (SERONOSYMP)

Abstract

Growth hormone (GH) has multiple actions on target tissues that are coordinated to promote somatic growth. To provide adequate substrate for growth, GH has significant effects on carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. While the effects on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism are believed to be direct or to be mediated through increased insulin secretion, the effects on protein synthesis are indirect, being mediated through the synthesis and secretion of somatomedin-C/insulin-like growth factor I (SmC/IGF-I), a potent stimulator of protein synthesis. The metabolic processes that coordinate the direct effects of GH with its indirect growth-promoting actions are incompletely understood.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Caloric Restriction Human Growth Hormone Nitrogen Balance Ideal Body Weight 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Young FG. Growth and diabetes in normal animals treated with pituitary (anterior lobe) diabetogenic extract. Biochem J 1945; 39: 515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Engel F, Engel M, McPherson H. Ketogenic and adipokinetic activities of pituitary hormones. Endocrinology 1957; 61: 713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goodman HM, Knobil E. Growth hormone and fatty acid mobilization: the role of the pituitary, adrenal, and thyroid. Endocrinology 1961; 69: 187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Raben MS, Hollenberg CH. Effect of growth hormone plasma fatty acids. J Clin Invest 1959; 38: 484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goodman HM. Permissive effects of hormones on lipolysis. Endocrinology 1970; 86: 1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frigeri LG. Absence of in vitro dexamethasone dependent lipolytic activity from highly purified growth hormone. Endocrinology 1980; 107: 738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goodman HM, Grichting G. Growth hormone and lipolysis: a reevaluation. Endocrinology 1983; 113: 1697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldman JK, Bressler R. Growth hormone stimulation of fatty acid utilization by adipose tissue. Endocrinology 1968; 811: 306.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mendel VJ. Influence of insulin to growth hormone ratio on body composition of mice. Am J Physiol 1979; 238: E231.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Freiberg SE, Merrimee TJ. Acute metabolic effects of human growth hormone. Diabetes 1979; 23: 499.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hollobaugh SC, Tzagourinis M, Folk RL, Kruger FA, Hamiur C. The diabetogenic action of human growth hormone; glucose-fatty acid interrelationships. Metabolism 1968; 17: 485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Russell JA. Effects of growth hormone on protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 1957; 5: 404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chung C, Etherton T, Wiggins J. Stimulation of swine growth by porcine growth hormone. J Anim Sci 1985; 60: 118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bray GA. Calorigenic effect of human growth hormone obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1969; 29: 119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bray GA, Raben MS, Londono J, Gallagher TF Jr. Effect of triiodothyronine, growth hormone, and anabolic steroids on nitrogen excretion and oxygen consumption in obese patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1971; 33: 293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Copeland KC, Underwood LE, Van Wyk JJ. Induction of immunoreactive somatomedin-C in human serum by growth hormone: dose response relationships and effect on chromatographic profiles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980; 50: 690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schoenle E, Zapf J, Humbel RE, Froesch ER. Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates growth in hypophysectomized rats. Nature 1982; 296: 252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Clemmons DR, Van Wyk JJ. Factors controlling blood concentration of somatomedin-C. Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 13: 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clemmons DR, Kilbanski A, Underwood LE, et al. Reduction in immunoreactive somatomedin-C during fasting in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981; 53: 1247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Merrimee TJ, Zapf J, Froesch ER. Insulin-like growth factors in the fed and fasted states. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1982; 55: 999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Isley WL, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Dietary components that regulate serum somatomedin-C concentrations in humans. J Clin Invest 1983; 71: 175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Isley WL, Underwood LE, Clemmons DR. Change in plasma somatomedin-C in response to ingestion of diets with variable protein and energy content. JPEN 1984; 8: 407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Clemmons DR, Seek MM, Underwood LE. Supplemental essential amino acids augment the somatomedin-C/IGF-I response to refeeding after fasting. Metabolism 1985; 34: 391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schwartz F, Der Kinderen HG, Van Riet JH, Thijssen H, Van Wayjen GA. Influence of exogenous human growth hormone on the metabolism of fasting obese patients. Metabolism 1972; 21: 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cahill GF Jr. Metabolic response of human growth hormone during prolonged starvation. J Clin Invest 1971; 50: 411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clemmons DR, Snyder DK, Williams R, Underwood LE. Growth hormone administration conserves lean body mass during dietary restriction of obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987; 64: 878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smith AT, Clemmons DR, Ben Ezra V, McMurray R, UnderWood LE. Exercise modulates the response of somatomedin-C to dietary restriction. Metabolism (in press).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Manson JMcK, Wilmore DW. Positive nitrogen balance with human growth hormone and hypocaloric intravenous feeding. Surgery 1986; 100: 188.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • David R. Clemmons
    • 1
  • David K. Snyder
    • 1
  • Louis E. Underwood
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Medicine and PediatricsUniversity of North Carolina School of MedicineChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations