Effects of Human Growth Hormone in Normal Short Children and In Patients with Intrauterine Growth Retardation, Glucocorticoid-Induced Stunting of Growth, Osteochondrodystrophies and Other Disorders

  • Allen W. Root
  • Frank DiamondJr.
Part of the Serono Symposia, USA book series (SERONOSYMP)


Human growth hormone (hGH) is of proven value in promoting the growth of hyposomatotropic subjects, but its effects in children with short stature due to other causes is variable. The present communication reviews the reported effects of hGH on linear growth in normal short children and those with “bioinactive” GH and in patients with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), the Russell-Silver syndrome, glucocorticoid associated short stature, various osteochondrodystrophies, chromosomal anomalies (other than Turner syndrome) and isolated metabolic disorders. In the children reported, stimulated secretion of immunoreactive hGH was normal when studied. A significant effect of hGH upon growth rate is considered to be an increase in growth rate more than 2.0 cm/year above the pretreat- ment growth velocity, the limit of normal variation in linear growth velocity (1).


Growth Hormone Growth Velocity Human Growth Hormone Linear Growth Rate Idiopathic Short Stature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Hughes PCR, Vince FP. Effect of human growth hormone for 1 to 7 years on growth of 100 children, with growth hormone deficiency, low birth weight, inherited smallness, Turner’s syndrome, other complaints. Arch Dis Child 1971; 46: 745–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Raben MS. Growth hormone. Clinical use of human growth hormone. N Engl J Med 1962; 266: 82–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Soyka LF, Ziskind A, Crawford JD. Treatment of short stature in children and adolescents with human pituitary growth hormone ( Raben ). N Engl J Med 1964; 754–64.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grunt JA, Enriquez AR. Acute and long-term responsiveness to growth hormone in children with short stature. Pediatr Res 1972; 6: 664–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hayek A, Peake GT. Growth and somatomedin-C responses to growth hormone in dwarfed children. J Pediatr 1981; 99: 868–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bright GM, Rogol AD, Johanson AJ, Blizzard RM. Short stature asso-ciated with normal growth hormone and decreased somatomedin-C concentrations: response to exogenous growth hormone. Pediatrics 1983; 71: 756–8.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Van Vliet G, Styne DM, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Growth hormone treatment for short stature. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 1016–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Plotnick LP, Van Meter QL, Kowarski AA. Human growth hormone treatment of children with growth failure and normal growth hormone levels by immunoassay: lack of correlation with somatomedin generation. Pediatrics 1983; 71: 324–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gertner JM, Genel M, Gianfredi SP, et al. Prospective clinical trial of human growth hormone in short children without growth hormone deficiency. J Pediatr 1984; 104: 172–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Raiti S, Kaplan SL, Van Vliet G, Moore WV. Short-term treatment of short stature and subnormal growth rate with human growth hormone. J Pediatr 1987; 110: 357–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grunt JA, Howard CP, Daughaday WH. Comparison of growth hormone treatment in children with small-for-dates short stature, significant idiopathic short stature and hypopituitarism. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1984; 106: 168–74.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Albertsson-Wikland K. Growth hormone treatment in short children. Acta Paediatr Scand [Suppl] 1986; 325: 64–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Costin G, Kaufman FR. Growth hormone secretory patterns in children with short stature. J Pediatr 1987; 110: 362–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kowarski AA, Schneider J, Ben-Galim E, Weldon VV, Daughaday WH. Dwarfism due to inactivity of endogenous growth hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1978; 47: 461–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Frazer T, Gavin JR, Daughaday WH, Hillman RE, Weldon VV. Growth hormone-dependent growth failure. J Pediatr 1982; 101: 12–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rudman D, Kutner M, Goldsmith MA, Kenny J, Jennings H, Bain RP. Further observations on four subgroups of normal variant short stature. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1980; 51: 1378–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rudman D, Kutner MH, Blackston RD, Cushman RA, Bain RP, Patterson JH. Children with normal variant short stature: treatment with human growth hormone for six months. N Engl J Med 1981; 305: 123–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bistritzer T, Chalew SA, Lovchik JC, Kowarski AA. Decreased growth hormone binding to IM-9 cells in children with biologically inactive GH syndrome. Pediatr Res 1987; 21: 244A.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tokuhiro E, Dean NJ, Friesen HG, Rudman D. Comparative study of human growth hormone measurement with NB2 lymphoma cell bioassay, IM-9 receptor modulation assay, and radioimmunoassay in children with disorders of growth. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984; 58: 549–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rudman D, Chawla RK, Heath WP, Berry CJ, Kutner MH. The hyposomatomedinemic short child. In: Raiti S, Tolman RA, eds. Human growth hormone. New York: Plenum Medical Book Co., 1986: 135–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Valenta LJ, Siegel MB, Lesniak MA, et al. Pituitary dwarfism in a patient with circulating abnormal growth hormone polymers. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 214–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Grunt JA, Enriquez.AR, Daughaday WH. Acute and long-term responses to hGH in children with idiopathic small-for-dates dwarfism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1972; 35: 157–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Foley TP Jr, Thompson RG, Shaw M, Baghdassariam A, Nissley SP, Blizzard RM. Growth responses to human growth hormone in patients with intrauterine growth retardation. J Pediatr 1974; 84: 635–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lee PA, Blizzard RM, Cheek DB, Holt AB. Growth and body composition in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) before and during human growth hormone administration. Metabolism 1974; 23: 913–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lanes R, Plotnick LP, Lee PA. Sustained effect of human growth hormone therapy on children with intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatrics 1979; 63: 731–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lenko HL, Leisti S, Perheentupa J. The efficacy of growth hormone in different types of growth failure. An analysis of 101 cases. Eur J Pediatr 1982; 138: 241–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tanner JM, Lejapraga H, Cameron N. The natural history of the Silver-Russell syndrome: a longitudinal study of thirty nine cases. Pediatr Res 1975; 9: 611–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Angehrn V, Zachmann M, Prader A. Silver-Russell syndrome. Observations in 20 patients. Helv Paediatr Acta 1979; 34: 297–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stahnke N. Human growth hormone treatment in short children without growth hormone deficiency. N Engl J Med 1984; 310: 925–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Partsch C-J, Hermanussen M, Sippell WG. Treatment of Silver-Russell type dwarfism with human growth hormone: effects on serum somatomedin C levels and on longitudinal growth studied by knemometry. Acta Endocrinol [suppl] (Copenh) 1986; 279: 139–46.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cassidy SB, Blonder O, Courtney VW, Ratzan SK, Carey DE. Russell- Silver syndrome and hypopituitarism. Patient report and literature review. Am J Dis Child 1986; 140: 155–9.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    O’Brien JE, Sadeghi-Nejad A, Feingold M. Growth hormone deficiency in a patient with Silver-Russell syndrome. J Pediatr 1978; 93: 152–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hall JG. Microphallus, growth hormone deficiency and hypoglycemia in dwarfism. Am J Dis Child 1978; 132: 1149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kappy MS. Regulation of growth in children with chronic illness. Therapeutic implications for the year 2000. Am J Dis Child 1987; 141: 489–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Unterman TG, Phillips LS. Glucocorticoid effect on somatomedins and somatomedin inhibitors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1985; 61: 618–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Morris HG, Jorgensen JR, Jenkins SA. Plasma growth hormone concentrations in corticosteroid-treated children. J Clin Invest 1968; 47: 427–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Root AW, Bongiovanni AM, Eberlein WR. Studies of the secretion and metabolic effects of human growth hormone in children with glucocorticoid-induced growth retardation. J Pediatr 1969; 75: 826–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kunde MM, Marshall RT, Freeman S, Rhoads PS. Metabolic and statural response to human growth hormone in juvenile Cushing’s syndrome with dwarfism. JAMA 1966; 21: 307–15.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Butenandt O. Rheumatoid arthritis and growth retardation in children: treatment with human growth hormone. Eur J Pediatr 1979; 130: 15–28.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ward DJ, Hartog M, Ansell BM. Corticosteroid induced dwarfism in Still’s disease treated with human growth hormone. Ann Rheum Dis 1966; 26: 416–21.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Morris HG, Jorgensen JR, Elrick H, Goldsmith RE. Metabolic effects of human growth hormone in corticosteroid-treated children. J Clin Invest 1968; 47: 436–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Matiasevic D, Gershberg II. Studies on hydroxyproline excretion and corticosteroid-induced dwarfism: treatment with human growth hormone. Metabolism 1966; 15: 720–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Frasier SD, Rallison ML. Growth retardation and emotional deprivation: relative resistance to treatment with human growth hormone. J Pediatr 1972; 80: 603–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Escamilla RF, Hutchings JJ, Li CH, Forsham P. Achondroplastic dwarfism. Treatment with human growth hormone. Calif Med 1966; 105: 104–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gershberg H, Mari S, Hulse M, St Paul H. Long-term treatment of hypopituitary and of achondroplastic dwarfism with human growth hormone. Metabolism 1964; 13: 152–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Escamilla RF. Nonhypopituitary dwarfs and human growth hormone therapy. In: Raiti S, ed. Advances in human growth hormone research. DHEW Publications No. (NIH) 74-612, 1973: 765–85.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Horton WA, Howard CP, Grunt JA. Skeletal changes following growth hormone treatment in a child with combined hypopituitarism and a skeletal dysplasia. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 1983; 103: 302–8.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Edwards W, Root AW. Chondrodystrophic myotonia (Schwartz-Jampel syndrome). Report of a new case and follow-up of patients initially reported in 1969. Am J Med Genet 1982; 13: 51–6.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gershberg H, Neuman LL, Mari S. Studies on vitamin-D-resistant rickets: effects of human growth hormone. Metabolism 1964; 13: 636–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Crawford JD, Bode HH, Botstein PM. Human growth hormone and non-hypopituitary disorders. In: Raiti S, ed. Advances in human growth hormone research. DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 74–612, 1973: 757–64.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zackheim HS. Failure of human growth hormone to benefit dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. Arch Dermatol 1983; 119: 537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Milner RDG, Russell-Fraser T, Brook CGD, et al. Experience with human growth hormone in Great Britain: the report of the MRC working party. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1979; 11: 15–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Anneren G, Sara VR, Hall K, Tuvemo T. Growth and somatomedin responses to growth hormone in Down’s syndrome. Arch Dis Child 1986; 61: 48–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Draznin MD, Stelling MW, Johanson AJ. Silver-Russell syndrome and craniopharyngioma. J Pediatr 1980; 96: 887–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gavin JR, Trived B, Aceto T, Bier DM, Grunt JA. Variant circulating forms of growth hormone constitute an uncommon cause of growth failure in children. Endocrinology 1987; 120: 217A.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allen W. Root
    • 1
    • 2
  • Frank DiamondJr.
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA
  2. 2.All Children’s HospitalSt. PetersburgUSA

Personalised recommendations