Growth Hormone Gene Expression: Hormonal Regulation and Tissue-Specific Expression
Growth hormone (GH) belongs to a family of polypeptide hormones that includes chorionic somatomammotropin (CS, placental lactogen), prolactin (Prl) and proliferin. This hormone family is related by structural homology (1–5), immunoreactivity and partially overlapping biological functions (6). GH and Prl are essential for the normal growth and development of mammals (7,8). GH is required for statural growth and maintenance of nitrogen, mineral, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism (7). Prl is required for the initiation and maintenance of lactation (8). Proliferin may be involved in cellular growth as it occurs in increased concentrations prior to cell division (5,9). The function of CS has been postulated to provide GH-like activities for the developing fetus (10,11); however, it does not appear to have essential functions in man. It appears that a common function of the various members of the growth hormone family may be at the level of control of cellular differentiation and proliferation.
KeywordsGrowth Hormone Growth Hormone Gene Thyroid Hormone Response Element Thyroid Hormone Regulation Growth Hormone Gene Expression
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