Advertisement

Precursors of Urotensins and Their Co-Expression in the Caudal Neurosecretory System

  • Tomoyuki Ichikawa
  • Isao Ishida
  • Shunji Ohsako
  • Takeo Deguchi

Abstract

An array of neurosecretory neurons in the posterior spinal cord and their associated neurohemal organ, the urophysis, comprise the caudal neurosecretory system (CNS) of fishes. The CNS is credited with the synthesis and release of at least 2 neurohormones, urotensins I and II (UI and UII). There is no clear evidence for the existence of urotensin III as a separate chemical entity. Urotensin IV appears to be chemically and pharmacologically indistinguishable from arginine vasotocin (Lacanilao, 1972a,b), which occurs in small amounts in the urophysis of only some teleost species (Lacanilao and Bern, 1972). Also present in the teleost urophysis are large amounts of acetylcholine of unknown significance (Kobayashi et al., 1963; Ichikawa, 1978; Ichikawa and Kobayashi, 1978) and putative carrier proteins analogous to the neurophysins, the urophysins (Berlind et al., 1972; Moore et al., 1975; Lederis et al., 1981).

Keywords

White Sucker Arginine Vasotocin Neurosecretory Neuron Catostomus Commersoni Synthetic Oligonucleotide Probe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berlind, A., Lacanilao, F., and Bern, H.A., 1972, Teleost caudal neurosecretory system: Effects of osmotic stress on urophysial proteins and active factors, Comp. Biochem. Phvsiol., 42A: 345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bern, H.A., Pearson, D., Larson, B.A., and Nishioka, R.S., 1985, Neurohormones from fish tails: The caudal neurosecretory system. I. “Urophysiology” and the caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, Recent Frog. Horm. Res., 41: 533.Google Scholar
  3. Chan, D.K.O., and Bern, H.A., 1976, The caudal neurosecretory system. A critical evaluation of the two-hormone hypothesis, Cell Tissue Res., 174: 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fisher, A.W.F., Wong, K., Gill, V., and Lederis, K., 1984, Immunocytochemical localization of urotensin I neurons in the caudal neurosecretory system of the white sucker (Catostomus_commersoni), Cell Tissue Res., 235: 19.Google Scholar
  5. Fryer, J.N., and Lederis, K., 1986, Control of corticotropin secretion in teleost fishes, Amer. Zool., 26: 1017.Google Scholar
  6. Furutani, Y., Morimoto, Y., Shibahara, S., Noda, M., Takahashi, H., Hirose, T., Asai, M., Inayama, S., Hayashida, H., Miyata, T., and Numa, S., 1983, Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for ovine corticotropin-releasing factor precursor, Nature, 301: 537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ichikawa, T., 1978, Acetylcholine in the urophysis of several species of teleosts, Gen. Comm Endocrinol., 35: 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ichikawa, T., 1985, The chemistry of urotensins: Present status, in “Neurosecretion and the Biology of Neuropeptides,” H. Kobayashi, H.A. Bern and A. Urano, eds., Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo/Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  9. Ichikawa, T., and Kobayashi, H., 1978, Acetylcholine in the urophysis and release of urophysial hormones by neurotransmitters in vitro, in “Neurosecretion and Neuroendocrine Activity. Evolution, Structure and Function,” W. Bargmann, A. Oksche, A. Polenov and B. Scharrer, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  10. Ichikawa, T., Lederis, K., and kobayashi, H., 1984, Primary structures of multiple forms of urotensin II in the urophysis of the carp, Cvprinus carpio, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 55: 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ichikawa, T., McMaster, D., Lederis, K., and Kobayashi, H., 1982, Isolation and amino acid sequence of urotensin I, a vasoactive and ACTH- releasing neuropeptide, from the carp (Cvprinus carpio) urophysis, Peptides, 3: 859.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ichikawa, T., Pearson, D., Yamada, C., and Kobayashi, H., 1986, The caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, Zool. Sci., 3: 585.Google Scholar
  13. Ishida, I., Ichikawa, T., and Deguchi, T., 1986, Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA encoding urotensin I precursor, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83: 308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kobayashi, H., Owada, K., Yamada, C., and Okawara, Y., 1986, The caudal neurosecretory system in fishes, in “Vertebrate Endocrinology Fundamentals and Biomedical Implications,” P.K.T. Pang and M.P. Schreibman, eds., Vol. I. “Morphological Considerations,” A. Gorbman, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Kobayashi, H., Uemura, H., Oota, Y., and Ishii, S., 1963, Cholinergic substance in the caudal neurosecretory storage organ of fish, Science, 141: 714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kriebel, R.M., Parsons, R.L., and Miller, K.E., 1985, Innervation of caudal neurosecretory cells, in “Neurosecretion and the Biology of Neuropeptides,” H. Kobayashi, H.A. Bern and A. Urano, eds., Japan Sci. Soc. Press, Tokyo/Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  17. Lacanilao, F., 1972a, The urophysial hydrosmotic factor of fishes. I. Characteristics and similarity to neurohypophysial hormones, Gen. Como. Endocrinol., 19: 405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lacanilao, F., 1972b, The urophysial hydrosmotic factor of fishes. II. Chromatogaphic and pharmacologic indications of similarity to arginine vasotocin, Gen. Como. Endocrinol., 19: 413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lacanilao, F., and Bern, H.A., 1972, The urophysial hydrosmotic factor of fishes. III. Survey of fish caudal spinal cord regions for hydrosmotic activity, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 140: 1252.Google Scholar
  20. Larson, B.A., Bern, H.A., Lin, R.J., and Nishioka, R.S., 1987, A double sequential immunofluorescence method demonstrating the co-localization of urotensins I and II in the caudal neurosecretory system of the teleost, Gillichthvs_mirabilis, Cell Tissue Res., 247: 233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lederis, K., Ichikawa, T., and McMaster, D., 1981, Urophyseal peptides and proteins, in “Neurosecretion: Molecules, Cells, Systems,” D.S. Farner and K. Lederis, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Lederis, K., Letter, A., McMaster, D., Moore, G., and Schlesinger, D., 1982, Complete amino acid sequence of urotensin I, a hypotensive and corticotropin-releasing neuropeptide from Catostomus, Science, 218: 162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McMaster, D., and Lederis, K., 1983, Isolation and amino acid sequence of two urotensin II peptides from Catostomus commersoni urophyses, Peptides, 4: 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Montminy, M.R., Goodman, R.H., Horovitch, S.J., and Habener, J.F., 1984, Primary structure of the gene encoding rat preprosomatostatin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81: 3337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moore, G., Burford, G., and Lederis, K., 1975, Properties of urophysial proteins (urophysins) from the white sucker, Catostomus_commersoni, Mol. Cell. Endocrinol., 3: 297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ohsako, S., Ishida, I., Ichikawa, T., and Deguchi, T., 1986, Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding precursors of urotensin II-a and -r, J. Neurosci., 6: 2730.Google Scholar
  27. Onstott, D., and Elde, R., 1986, Coexistence of urotensin I/corticotropin-releasing factor and urotensin II immunoreactivities in cells of the caudal neurosecretory system of a teleost and an elasmobranch fish, Gen. Comp. Endocrinol., 63: 295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Owada, K., Kawata, M., Akaji, K., Takagi, A., Moriga, M., and Kobayashi, H., 1985, Urotensin II-immunoreactive neurons in the caudal neurosecretory system of freshwater and seawater fish, Cell Tissue Res., 239: 349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pearson, D., Cheers, Y., Atmani, D., Ishida, I., Deguchi, T., Nishioka, R. S., and Bern, H.A., 1986, The prohormone for urotensin II from the caudal neurosecretory complex of the goby, Abstr. 1st Cong. Neuroendocrinol., 198.Google Scholar
  30. Pearson, D., Shively, J.E., Clark, B.R., Geschwind, I.I., Barkley, M., Nishioka, R.S., and Bern, H.A., 1980, Urotensin II: A somatostatin-like peptide in the caudal neurosecretory system of fishes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 77: 5021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yamada, C., Owada, K., Ichikawa, T., Iwanaga, T., and Kobayashi, H., 1986, Immunohistochemical localization of urotensins I and II in the caudal neurosecretory neurons of the carp Cvorinus caroio and the sharks Heterodontus jaoonicus and Ceohaloscvllium umbratile, Arch. Histol. Japan., 49: 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yulis, C.R., and Lederis, K., 1986, Extraurophyseal distribution of urotensin II immunoreactive neuronal perikarya and their processes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83: 7079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Yulis, C.R., Lederis, K., Wong, K., and Fisher, A.W.F., 1986, Localization of urotensin I-and corticotropin-releasing factor-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of Catostomus_commersoni, Peptides, 7: 79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomoyuki Ichikawa
    • 1
  • Isao Ishida
    • 2
  • Shunji Ohsako
    • 2
  • Takeo Deguchi
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Anatomy and EmbryologyTokyo Metropolitan Institute for NeurosciencesTokyo 183Japan
  2. 2.Department of Molecular NeurobiologyTokyo Metropolitan Institute for NeurosciencesTokyo 183Japan

Personalised recommendations