Neurosecretion pp 191-197 | Cite as

Rhythmic Patterns of Discharge from Preoptic Neurones: Relationship to LH Release in Conscious Rabbits

  • A. J. S. Summerlee


Neurones that stain immunohistochemically for gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) are scattered throughout the hypothalamus. They are found more abundantly in the medial preoptic area of the rat and rabbit brain, with smaller aggregations in the accessory olfactory bulbs, the rostral hippocampus and the septum (Bennett-Clark and Joseph, 1982; King and Anthony, 1984; Weindl and Sofroniew, 1981). There are few GnRH-cell bodies in the mediobasal hypothalamus (Silverman et al., 1982) and no discrete aggregations into classic hypothalamic nuclei equivalent to the magnocellular nuclei. The axons from the GnRH-cell bodies project to many parts of the brain which implies that GnRH may be involved in mediating/controlling central functions other than the well established roles controlling the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the adenohypophysis. The most obvious convergence of GnRH-containing axons is found in the median eminence and the organum-vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). The fibres that converge on the median eminence originate from the medial preoptic area and to a lesser extent from the paraventricular region (King and Anthony, 1984; Silverman et al., 1982; Witkin et al., 1982). In primates there are also cell bodies in the arcuate region that project to the median eminence.


Luteinizing Hormone Median Eminence GnRH Neurone Luteinizing Hormone Surge Luteinizing Hormone Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adler, G. and Crowley, W.F., 1986, Evidence for r-aminobutyric acid modulation of ovarian hormonal effects on luteinizing hormone secretion and hypothalamic catecholamine action in the female rat, Endocrinology, 118: 91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennet-Clarke, C. and Joseph, S.A., 1982, Immunocytochemical distribution of LHRH neurons and processes in the rat: Hypothalamic and Extrahypothalamic locations, Cell Tissue Research, 221: 493.Google Scholar
  3. Bhanot, R. and Wilkinson, M., 1983, Opiatergic control of gonadotrophin secretion during puberty in the rat: a neurochemical basis for the gonadostat? Endocrinology, 113: 596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhanot, R. and Wilkinson, M., 1984, The inhibitory effect of opiates on gonadotrophin secretion is dependent upon gonadal steroids, Journal of Endocrinology, 102: 133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blake, C.A. and Sawyer, C.H., 1972, Ovulation blocking actions of urethane in the rat, Endocrinology, 91: 87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmel, P.W., Araki, S. and Ferrin, M., 1976, Pituitary stalk portal blood collection in rhesus monkeys: evidence for pulsatile release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone ( GnRH ), Endocrinology, 99: 243.Google Scholar
  7. Clarke, I.J. and Cummins, J.J., 1982, The temporal relationship between gonadotrophinreleasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinizing hormone ( LH) secretion in ovariectomized ewes, Endocrinology, 111: 1737.Google Scholar
  8. Clarke, I.J., Fraser, H.M. and McNeilly, A.S., 1978, Active immunization of ewes against luteinizing hormone, releasing hormone and its effects on ovulation and gonadotrophin, prolactin and ovarian steroid secretion, Journal of Endocrinology, 78: 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clarke, I.J., Cummins, J.J., Findlay, J.K., Burman, K.J. and Doughton, D.W., 1984, Effects on plasma luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone of varying the frequency and amplitude of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulses in ovariectomized ewes with hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection, Neuroendocrinology, 39: 214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clayton, R.N., 1982, Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone modulation of its own pituitary receptors: evidence for biphasic regulation, Endocrinology, 111: 152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crowley, W.F., Filicori, M., Spratt, D.I. and Santoro, N.F., 1985, The physiology of gonadotrophin hormone-releasing hormone ( GnRH) secretion in men and women, Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 41: 473.Google Scholar
  12. Ellis, G.B., Desjardins, C. and Fraser, H.M., 1983, Control of pulsatile LH release in male rats, Neuroendocrinologv, 37: 177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Everett, J.W. and Sawyer, C.H., 1950, A 24-hour periodicity in the ‘LH-release apparatus’ of female rats disclosed by barbiturate sedation, Endocrinology, 47: 198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fraser, H.M. and McNeilly, A.S., 1983, Differential effects of LH-RH immunoneutralization on LH and FSH secretion in the ewe, Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 69: 569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fuchs, E., Mansky, T., Stock, W.-W., Vijayan, E. and Wuttke, W., 1984, Involvement of catecholamines and glutamate in GABAergic mechanism regulatory to luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion, Neuroendocrinologv, 38: 484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Karsch, F.J., Bittman, E.L., Foster, D.L., Goodman, R.L., Legan, S.J. and Robinson, J.E., 1984, Neuroendocrine basis of seasonal breeding, Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 40: 185.Google Scholar
  17. Kawakami, M., Uemura, T. and Hayashi, R., 1982, Electrophysiological correlates of pulsatile gonadotrophin release in rats, Neuroendocrinology, 35: 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. King, J.C. and Anthony, E.L.P., 1984, LHRH neurones and their projections in humans and other mammals; species comparisons, Peptides, 5, Suppl.l 195.Google Scholar
  19. Lamberts, R., Vijayan, E., Graf, M., Mansky, T. and Wuttke, W., 1983, Involvement of preoptic-anterior hypothalamic GABA neurons in the regulation of pituitary LH and prolactin secretion, Experimental Brain Research, 52: 356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Levine, J.E., Kwok-Yuen, F.P., Ramirez, V.D. and Jackson, G.L., 1982, Simultaneous measurement of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and luteinizing hormone release in unanaesthetized, ovariectomized sheep, Endocrinology, 111: 1449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lincoln, D.W. and Kelly, W.A., 1972, The influence of urethane on ovulation in the rat, Endocrinology, 90: 1594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lincoln, D.W., Fraser, H.M., Lincoln, G.A., Martin, G.B. and McNeilly, A.S., 1985, Hypothalamic pulse generators, Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 41: 369.Google Scholar
  23. Lincoln, G.A., 1979, Use of a pulsed infusion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone to mimic seasonally induced endocrine changes in the ram, Journal of Endocrinology, 83: 251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lincoln, G.A. and Fraser, H.M., 1979, Blockade of episodic secretion of luteinizing hormone in the ram by administration of antibodies to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Biology of Reproduction, 21: 1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lincoln, G.A. and Short, R.V., 1980, Seasonal breeding: Nature’s Contraceptive Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 36: 1.Google Scholar
  26. Paisley, A.C. and Summerlee, A.J.S., 1985a, Activity of preoptic neurones in conscious rabbits, Journal of Physiology, 364: 49 P.Google Scholar
  27. Paisley, A.C. and Summerlee, A.J.S., 1985b, Rabbit preoptic neurones and luteinizing hormone release, Journal of Physiology, 364: 50 P.Google Scholar
  28. Poulain, D.A. and Wakerley, J.B., 1982, Electrophysiology of hypothalamic neurones secreting oxytocin and vasopressin, Neuroscience, 7: 773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ropert, J.F., Quigley, M.E. and Yen S.C.C., 1981, Endogenous opiates modulate pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in humans, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 52: 583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Silverman, A.J., Antunes, J.L., Abrams, G.M., Nilaver, G., Thau, R., Robinson, J.A., Ferrin, M. and Krey, L.C., 1982, The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone pathways in the rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and pigtailed (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys: new observations on thick unembedded sections, Journal of comparative Neurology, 211: 309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Summerlee, A.J.S., 1981, Extracellular recordings from oxytocin neurones during the expulsive phase of birth in unanaesthetized rats, Journal of Physiology, 321: 1.Google Scholar
  32. Summerlee, A.J.S., 1985, Steroids determine the response of the GnRH pulse generator to naloxone in rabbits, Neuroscience Letters, Suppl. 22, S598.Google Scholar
  33. Summerlee, A.J.S., 1986, The neural control of luteinizing hormone release, Progress in Neurobiology, 26: 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Summerlee, A.J.S. and Paisley, A.C., 1982, The effect of behavioural arousal on the activity of hypothalamic neurones in unanaesthetized, freely moving rats and rabbits, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 214: 263.Google Scholar
  35. Summerlee, A.J.S., Lincoln, D.W. and Webb, A.C., 1979, Long-term electrical recordings from single neurosecretory cells in the conscious lactating rat, Journal of Endocrinology, 83: 41 P.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sylvester, P.W., van Vugt, D.A. Aylsworth, C.A., Hanson, E.A. and Meites, J., 1982, Effects of morphine and naloxone on inhibition by ovarian hormones of pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized rats, Neuroendocrinologv, 34: 269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Thiery, J.C. and Pelletier, J., 1981, Multiunit activity in the anterior median eminence and adjacent areas of the hypothalamus of the ewe in relation to luteinizing hormone secretion, Neuroendocrinologv, 32: 217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wilson, R.C. Kesner, J.S., Kaufman, J-M., Uemura, T. Akema, T. and Knobil, E., 1984, Central electrophysiological correlates of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the rhesus monkey, Neuroendocrinologv 39: 256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Weick, R.F. and Dyer, R.G., 1982, Stimulation of single unit activity in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and secretion of luteinizing hormone, by ovarian steroids in ovariectomized rats with diencephalic islands, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B 216: 461.Google Scholar
  40. Weindl A. and Sofroniew, M.V., 1981, The morphology of LRH and oxytocin neurones, in: Experimental Brain Research, Suppl 3, 1–7, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  41. Witkin, J.W., Paden, C.M. and Silverman, A.J., 1982, The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ( LHRH) systems in the rat brain, Neuroendocrinologv, 35: 429.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. S. Summerlee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomySchool of Veterinary ScienceBristolUK

Personalised recommendations