The Evolution of FMRFamide-Like Neuropeptide Genes

  • John R. Nambu
  • Richard H. Scheller


Biologically active peptides constitute an important class of extracellular molecular messengers. Consisting of short chains of amino acids, they mediate a range of behavioral, developmental, and physiological processes and are major components of both neuronal and endocrine communication networks (Krieger, 1983). In general, peptides are initially contained on larger precursor proteins which undergo post-translational proteolytic processing (Loh and Gainer, 1983). These precursors often serve as polyproteins to liberate multiple bioactive peptide products, a property that greatly increases their potential information capacity.


Land Snail Peptide Unit Putative Signal Sequence Atrial Gland FMRFamide Related Peptide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arnheim, N., 1983, in: “Evolution of Genes and Proteins,” M. Nei and R.K. Koehn, eds., Sinauer, Sunderland.Google Scholar
  2. Austin, T., Weiss, S., and Lukowiak, K., 1982, FMRFamide effects on spontaneous and induced contractions of the anterior gizzard in Anlvsia, Can. J. Phvsiol. Pharmacol., 61: 949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baltimore, D., 1981, Gene conversion: some implications for immunoglobulin genes, Cell, 24: 592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnard C.S., and Dockray, G.J., 1984, Increasing arterial blood pressure in the rat in response to a new vertebrate neuropeptide, LPLRFamide, and a related molluscan peptide, FMRFamide, Reg. Peptides, 8: 209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boer, H.H., Schot, L.P.C., Veenstra, J.A., and Reichelt, D., 1980, Immunocytochemical identification of neural elements in the central nervous systems of a snail, some insects, a fish, and a mammal with antiserum to the molluscan cardio-excitatory tetrapeptide FMRFamide, Cell and Tissue Res., 213: 21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cottrell, G.A., Davies, N.W., and Green, K.A., 1984, Multiple actions of a molluscan cardioexcitatory neuropeptide and related peptides on identified Helix neurons, J. Physiol., 365: 315.Google Scholar
  7. Dockray, G.J., Reeve Jr., J.R., Shively, J., Gayton, R.J., and Barnard, C.S., 1983, A novel active pentapeptide from chicken brain identified by antibodies to FMRFamide, Nature, 305: 328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ebberink R.H.M., and Joosse, J., 1985, Molecular properties of various snail peptides from brain and gut, Peptides, 6 (3): 451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gayton, R.J., 1982, Mammalian neugonal,.pctions of FMRFamide and the structurally related opiod Met-enkephalin-Arg6-Phe7, Nature, 298: 275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Greenberg M.J., and Price, D.A., 1983, Invertebrate neuropeptides: native and naturalized, Ann. Rev. Phvsiol., 45: 271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grimmelikhuijzen C.J.P., and Graff, D., 1985, Arg-Phe-amide-like peptides in the primitive nervous systems of coelenterates, Peptides, 6 (3): 477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Grimmelikhuijzen C.J.P., and Graff, D., 1986, Isolation of >Glu-Gly-Arg-Phe-NH2 (AnthoRFamide), a neuropeptide from sea anenomes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83: 9817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kreiger, D.T., 1983, Brain peptides: what, where, and why?, Science, 222:975..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Loh Y.P. and Gainer, H., 1983, Biosynthesis and processing of neuropeptides, in: “Brain Peptides”, D.T. Krieger, M.J. Brownstein, and J.B. Martin, eds., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  15. McCarthy P.W., and Cottrell, G.A., 1984, Responses of mouse spinal neurones in culture to locally applied Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2, Como. Biochem. Phvsiol., 79C: 383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McFarlane, I.D., Graff, D., and Grimmelikhuijzen, C.J.P., 1987, J. Exp. Biol., in press.Google Scholar
  17. Nacham, R.J., Holman, G.M., Haddon, W.F., and Ling, N., 1986, Leucosulfakinin, a sulfated insect neuropeptide with homology to gastrin and cholecystokinin, Science 234: 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nakanishi, S., Inoue, A., Kita, T., Nakamura, M., Chang, A.C.Y. Cohen, S.N., and Numa, S., 1979, Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for bovine corticotropin-beta-lipotropin precursor, Nature, 278: 423.Google Scholar
  19. Nambu, J.R., Murphy-Erdosh, C., Andrews, P.C., Feistner, G.J., and Scheller, R.H., 1988, Isolation and characterization of a Drosophila neuropeptide gene, submitted.Google Scholar
  20. Noda, M., Furutani, Y., Takahashi, H., Toyosato, M. Hirose, T., Inayama, S., Nakanishi, S., and Numa, S., 1982, Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for bovine adrenal preproenkephalin, Nature, 295: 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Painter S.D., and Greenberg, M.J., 1982, A survey of the responses of bivalve hearts to the molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide and to 5-hydroxytryptamine, Biol. Bull., 162: 311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Painter, S.D., Morley, J.S., and Price, D.A., 1982, Structure-activity relations of the molluscan neuropeptide FMRFamide on some molluscan muscles, Life Sci., 31: 2471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Price D.A., and Greenberg, M.J., 1977, The structure of a molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide, Science, 197: 670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Price, D.A., 1986, Evolution of a molluscan cardioregulatory neuropeptide, American Zoologist, 26: 1007.Google Scholar
  25. Price, D.A., Cottrell, G.A., Doble, K.E., Greenberg, M.J. Jorenby, W., Lehman, H.K., and Riehm, J.P., 1985, A novel FMRF-related peptide in Helix: pQDPFLRFamide, Biol. Bull., 169: 256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schaefer, M., Picciotto, M.R., Kreiner, T., Kaldany, R.R., Taussig, R., and Scheller, R.H., 1985, Aplysia neurons express a gene encoding multiple FMRFamide neuropeptides, Cell, 41: 457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scheller, R.H., Kaldany, R.R., Kreiner, T., Mahon, A.C., Nambu, J.R., Schaefer, M., and Taussig, R., 1984, Neuropeptides: mediators of behavior in Aplysia, Science, 225: 1300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sharp P.M., and Li, W.H., 1987, Ubiquitin genes as a paradigm of concerted evolution in tandem repeats, J. Molec. Evol., 25: 58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shyamala, M. Fisher, J.,and Scheller, R.H., 1986, A neuropeptide precursor expressed in Aplysia neuron L5, DNA, 5: 203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sorensen, R.L., Sasek, C.A., and Elde, R., 1984, Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRF-NH2) inhibits insulin and somatostatin secretion and anti-FMRF-NH2 sera detects pancreatic polypeptide cells in the rat islets, Peptides, 5: 777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sossin, W.S., Kirk, M.D., and Scheller, R.H., 1987, Peptidergic modulation of neuronal circuitry controlling feeding in Aplysia, Neurosci., 7 (3): 671.Google Scholar
  32. Tatemoto K., and Mutt, V., 1978, Chemical determination of polypeptide hormones, Proc. Natl, Acad. Sci. USA., 75: 4115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Taussig R., and Scheller, R.H., 1986, The Aolvsia FMRFamide gene encodes sequences related to mammalian brain peptides, DNA, 5: 453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weber, E., Evans, C.J., Samuelsson, S.J., and Barchas, J.D., 1981, A novel peptide neuronal system in rat brain and pituitary, Science, 214: 1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Weiss, S., Goldberg, J.I., Chohan, K.S., Stell, W.K., Drummond, G.I., and Lukowiak, K., 1984, Evidence for FMRFamide as a neurotransmitter in the gill of Aplysia californica, J. Neurosci., 4:1994.Google Scholar
  36. White K., and Valles, A.M., 1985, Immunohistochemical and genetic studies of serotonin and neuropeptides in Drosophila, in: “Molecular Basis of Neuronal Development,” G.M. Edelman, W. Gall, W.M. Cowan, eds., Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  37. White, K., Hurteau, T., and Punsal, P., 1986, Neuropeptide FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in Drosophila: development and distribution, J.Com. Neurol., 247 (4): 430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • John R. Nambu
    • 1
  • Richard H. Scheller
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA

Personalised recommendations