Somatostatin and Neuropeptide Y: Coexistence in the Hippocampus and Alterations in Alzheimer’s Disease

  • Victoria Chan-Palay


Alzheimer’s type dementia (ATD) is characterized clinically by dementia, and histologically by the presence of numerous neuritic or senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the neocortex and hippocampus (Tomlinson et al., 1970; Tomlinson and Corsellis, 1984). The degree of dementia is reported to be positively correlated with the number of cortical plaques (Blessed et al., 1968; Perry et al., 1978) and cortical and hippocampal neurofibrillary tangles (Wilcock and Esiri, 1982).


Temporal Cortex Entorhinal Cortex Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Senile Dementia Neuritic Plaque 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, J.M., Fernier, I.N., Roberts, G.W., Cross, A.J., Adrian, T.E., Crow, T.J. and Bloom, S.R., 1984, Elevation of neuropeptide Y in substantia innominata in Alzheimer’s type dementia, J. Neurol. Sci., 64: 325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso, A. and Köhler, C., 1984, A study of the reciprocal connections between the sepotum and the entorhinal area using anterograde and retrograde axonal transport methods in the rat brain, J. Comn. Neurol., 225: 327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amaral, D.G. and Kurz, J., 1985, An analysis of the origins of the cholinergtic and noncholinergic septal projections to the hippocampal formation of the rat, J, Como. Neurol., 240: 37.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, D.M., Saper, C.B., Levey, A.I., Wainer, B.M. and Terry, R.D., 1983, Distribution of cholinergic neurons in rat brain demonstrated by the immunocytochemical localization of cholineacetyltransferase, J. Como. Neurol., 216: 53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong, D.M., LeRoy, S., Shields, D. and Terry, R.D., 1985, Somatostatin like immunoreactivities within neuritic plaques, Brain Res., 338: 71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakst, I., Morrison, J.H. and Amaral, D.G., 1985, The distribution of somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in the monkey hippocampal formation, J. Corm). Neurol., 236: 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ball, M.J., 1978, Topographic distribution of neurofibrillary tangles and granovacuolar degeneration in hippocampal cortex of aging and demented patients, Acta Neuronath., 42: 73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blessed, G., Tomlinson, B.E. and Roth, M., 1968, The association between quantitative measurements of dementia and senile changes in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects, Brit. J. Psvchiat., 114: 797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowen, D.M., Smith, C.B., White, B. and Davison, A.N., 1976, Neurotransmitter related enzymes and indices of hypoxia and senile dementia and other abiotrophies, Brain, 99: 459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Braak, H., 1974, On the Structure of the Human Archicortex, Cell Tiss. Res., 152: 349.Google Scholar
  11. Carlsson, A., Adolfsson, R., Aquilonius, S.M., Gottfries, C., Oreland, L., Svennerholm, L. and Winblad, B., 1980, Biogenic amines in human brain in normal aging, senile dementia and chronic alcoholism, in: Goldstein, Ergot compounds and brain functions: Neuroendocrine and neuropsychiatric aspects, 295–304, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Chan-Palay, V., 1987, Somatostatin immunoreactive neurons in the human hippocampus and cortex shown by immunogold/silver intensification on vibratome section: Coexistence with neuropeptide Y neurons, and effects in Alzheimer’s type dementia, J. Como. Neurol., in press.Google Scholar
  13. Chan-Palay, V. and Yasargil, G., 1986, Immunocytochemistry of human brain tissue with a polyclonal antiserum against neuropeptide Y, Anatomy and Embrvol., 174: 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chan-Palay, V., Allen, Y.S., Lang, W., Haesler, U. and Polak, J.M., 1985a, Cytology and distribution in normal human cerebral cortex of neurons immunoreactive with antisera against neuropeptide Y, J. Como. Neurol., 238: 382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chan-Palay, V., Lang, W., Allen, Y.S., Haesler, U. and Polak, J.M., 1985b, II. Corti neurons immunoreactive with antisera against neuropeptide Y are altered in Alzheimer’stype dementia,,T. Corm). Neurol., 238: 382.Google Scholar
  16. Chan-Palay, V., Köhler, C., Haesler, U., Lang, W. and Yasargil, G., 1986a, Distribution of neurons and axons immunoreactive with antisera against neuropeptide Y in the normal human hippocampus, J. Comn. Neurol., 248: 360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chan-Palay, V., Lang, W. Haesler, U., Köhler, C. and Yasargil, G., 1986b, Distribution of altered hippocampal neurons and axons immunoreactive with antisera against neuropeptide Y in Alzheimer’s type dementia, J. Como. Neurol., 248: 376.Google Scholar
  18. Charkin, C., Shoemaker, W.J., McCinty, J.F., Bayon, A. and Bloom, F.E., 1985, Characterization of the prodynorphin and proenkephalin neuropeptide systems in rat hippocampus, J. Neurosci., 5: 808.Google Scholar
  19. Coyle, J.T., Price, D.L. and Delong, M.R., 1983, Alzheimer’s disease: A disorder of cortical cholinergic innervation, Science, 219: 1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cross, A.J., Crow, T.J., Johnson, J.A., Perry, E.K., Blessed, G. and Tomlinson, B.E., 1983, Monoamine metabolism in senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type, J. Neurol. Sci., 60: 383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davies, P. and Maloney, A.J., 1981, Selective loss of central cholinergic neurons in Alzheimer’s disease, Lancet, 2: 1043.Google Scholar
  22. Davies, P. and Terry, R.D., 1981, Cortical somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in cases of Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia of Alzheimer type, Neurobiol. Acing, 2: 9.Google Scholar
  23. Davies, P., Katzmann, R., and Terry, R.D., 1980, Reduced somatostatin-like immunoreactivity in cases of Alzheimer’s disease and Alzheimer senile dementia, Nature, 288: 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Davies, S. and Köhler, C., 1985, The substance P innervation of the hippocampus in the rat, Anat. and Embrvol., 173: 45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dawbarn D., Hunt, S.P. and Emson, P.C., 1984, Neuropeptide Y: Regional distribution, chromatographic characterization and immunohistochemical demonstration in post mortem human brain, Brain Res. 296: 168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferrier, I.N., Cross, J.A., Johnson, J.A., Robers, G.W., Crow, T.J., Carsellis, J.A.N., Lee, Y.C., O’Shangoressey, A.T.E., McGregor, G.P., Bacarese-Hamilton, A.J. and Bloom, S.R., 1983, Neuropeptides in Alzheimer type dementia, J. Neurol. Sci., 62: 152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finley, J.C.W., Maderdrut, J.L., Roger, L.J. and Petrusz, P., 1981, The immunocytochemical localization of somatostatin-containing neurons in the rat CNS, Neurosci., 6: 2173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fuze, K., 1965, Evidence for the existence of monoamine terminals in the central nervous system, Acta Phvsiol. Scand., 64: 39.Google Scholar
  29. Gall, C. and Selawski, L., 1984, Supramammillary efferents to guinea pig hippocampus contain substance P-like immunoreactivity, Neurosci. Lett., 51: 171.Google Scholar
  30. Gottfries, C.G., Adolfsson, R., Aquilonius, S.M., Carlsson, A., Ecernas, S.A., Nordberg, A., Oveland, L., Svennerholm, L., Wiberg, A. and Winblad, B., 1983, Biochemical changes in dementia disorders of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT), Neurobiol. Arina, 4: 261.Google Scholar
  31. Greenwood, R.S., Godar, S., Reaves, T.A. and Hayward, J.N., 1982, Cholecystokinin in hippocampal pathways, J. Coron. Neurol., 203: 335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hardy, J., Adolfsson, R., Alafusoff, I., Bucht,m G., Marcosson, J., Nyberg, P., Perdahl, E., Wester, P. and Winblad, P., 1985, Transmitter deficits in Alzheimer’s disease, Neurochem. Int., 7: 545.Google Scholar
  33. Hendry, S.H.C., Jones, E.G. and Emson, P.C., 1984, Morphology, distribution and synaptic relations of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in rat and monkey neocortex, J. of Neurosci., 4: 2497.Google Scholar
  34. Henke, H. and Lang, W., 1983, Cholinergic enzymes in neocortex, hippocampus and basal forebrain of non-neurological and senile dementia of Alzheimer type patients, Brain Res., 267: 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hooper, W.M. and Vogel, F.S., 1976, The limbic system in Alzheimer’s disease, Amer. J. Path., 85: 1.Google Scholar
  36. Hyman, B.T., van Hoesen, G.W., Damasio, A.R. and Barnes, C.L., 1984, Alzheimer’s disease: Cell specific pathology isolates the hippocampal formation, Science, 225: 1168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Katchaturian, Z.S., 1985, Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease, Arch. Neurol., 42: 1097.Google Scholar
  38. Kemper, J., 1984, Neuroanatomical and neuropathological changes in nor aging and dementia, in: Albert, Clinical Neurology of Aging, 9–52, Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  39. Köhler, C., 1983, A morphological analysis of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like neurons in the area dentata of the rat brain, J. Comm Neurol., 221: 247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Köhler, C., Chan-Palay, V., 1982, The distribution of cholecystokinin like immunoreactive neurons and nerve terminals in the retrohippocampal region in the rat and guinea pig, J. Como. Neurol., 210: 136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Köhler, C. and Chan-Palay, V., 1982, Somatostatin-like immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus: An immunocytochemical study in the rat, Anat. Embrvol., 167: 151.Google Scholar
  42. Köhler, C. and Chan-Palay, V., 1983, Somatostatin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive cells and terminals in the retrohippocampal region of the rat brain, Anat. Embrvol., 167: 151.Google Scholar
  43. Köhler, C., Chan-Palay, V. and Steinbusch, H.W.M., 1982, The distribution and orientation of serotonin fibers in the entorhinal and other retrohippocampal areas: An immunohistochemical study with anti-serotonin antibodies in the rat’s brain, Anat. Embrvol., 161: 237.Google Scholar
  44. Köhler, C., Smialovska, M., Ericsson, L.G. and Chan-Patay, V., 1986b, Origin of neuropeptide Y in the rat retrohippocampal region, Neurosci. Lett., 65: 287.Google Scholar
  45. Köhler, C., Smialovska, M., Ericsson, L.G. and Chan-Patay, V., 1986b, Origin of neuropeptide Y in the rat retrohippocampal region, Neurosci. Lett., 65: 287.Google Scholar
  46. Lewis, P.R., Shute, C.C.D. and Silver, A., 1967, Confirmation from choline acetyltransferase of a massive cholinergic innervation to the rat hippocampus, J. Phvsiol. Lond., 191: 215.Google Scholar
  47. Lidov, M.G.W., Grzanna, R. and Molliver, M.E., 1980, The serotonin innervation of the cerebral cortex. An immunohistochemical analysis, Neuroscience, 5: 207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Loren, I., Alumets, J., Hakanson, R. and Sundler, F., 1979, Immunoreactive pancreatic polypeptide (PP) occurs in the central and peripheral nervous system: Preliminary immunocytochemical observations, Cell Tiss. Res., 200: 179.Google Scholar
  49. McGeer, P.I., McGeer, E.G., Suzuki, J., Dolman, C.E. and Nagai, T., 1984, Aging, Alzheimer’s disease and the cholinergic system of the basal forebrain, Neurology, 34: 741.Google Scholar
  50. McGinty, J.F., Hendriksen, S.J., Goldstein, A., Terenius, L. and Bloom, F.E., 1983, Dynorphin is contained within hippocampal mossy-fibers: Immunochemical alterations after kainic acid administration and colchicine induced neurotoxicity, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80: 589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mellgren, S.T. and Srebro, B., 1973, Changes in acetylcholinesterase and distribution of degenerating fibers in the hippocampal region after septal lesions in the rat, Brain Res., 52: 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Morrison, J.H., Rogers, J., Scherr, S., Benoit, R. and Bloom, F.E., 1985, Somatostatin in neuritic plaques of Alzheimer’s patients, Nature, 314: 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nakamura, S., Vincent, S.R., 1986, Somatostatin and neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in the neocortex in senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type, Brain Res., 370: 11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nieuwenhuys, R., 1985, Chemoarchitecture of the brain, 77 Springer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  55. Oderfeld-Nowak, B., Narkiewicz, O., Bialowas, J., Dabrowska, J., Wieraszko, A. and Bradkowska, M., 1974, The influence of septal nuclei lesions on activity of acetylcholinesterase in the hippocampus of the rat, Acta Neurobiol. Exp., 34: 787.Google Scholar
  56. Perry, E.K., Perry, R.H., Blessed, G. and Tomlinson, B.E., 1977, Necropsy evidence of central cholinergic deficits in senile dementia, Lancet, 1: 189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Perry, E.K., Tomlinson, B.E., Blessed, G., Bergman, K., Givson, P.H. and Perry, R.H., 1978, Correlation of cholinergic abnormalities with senile plaques and mental test scores in senile dementia, Brit. Med. J., 2: 1457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ramon y Cajal, 1911, Histologie du Systeme Nerveux de l’Homme et des Vértebrés, Paris, Norbert Maloine.Google Scholar
  59. Roberts, G.W., Woodhams, P.L., Polak, J.M. and Crow, T.J., 1984, Distribution of neuropeptides in the limbic system of the rat. The hippocampus, Neurosci., 11: 35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Roberts, G.W., Crow, T.W. and Polak, J.M., 1985, Location of neuronal tangles in somatostatin neurons in Alzheimer’s disease, Nature, 314: 92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rosser, M.N., Svendsen, C., Hunt, S.P., Mountjoy, C.Q., Roth, M. and Iversen, L.L., 1982, The substantia innominata in Alzheimer’s disease: A histochemical and biochemical study of cholinergic marker enzyme, Neurosci. Lett., 28: 217.Google Scholar
  62. Schaltenbrand, G. and Bailey, P., 1959, Introduction to stereotaxis with an atlas of the human brain. Vols. I-III, Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  63. Shute, C.C.D. and Lewis, P.R., 1967, The ascending cholinergic reticular systems: Neocortical, olfactory, and subcortical projections, Brain, 90: 497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Stengaard-Pedersen, K., Fredens, K. and Larsson, L.I., 1983, Comparative localization of enkephalin and cholecystokinin immunoreactivities and heavy metals in the hippocampus, Brain Res., 27: 381.Google Scholar
  65. Swanson, L.W. and Hartman, B.K., 1975, The central adrenergic system. An immunofluorescence study of the localization of cell bodies and their efferent connections in the rat utilizing dopamine- -hydroxylase as a marker, J. Como. Neurol., 163: 487.Google Scholar
  66. Swanson, L.W., Sawchenko, P.E., Rivier, J. and Vale, W.W., 1983, Organization of ovine corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells and fibers in the rat brain: An immunohistochemical study, Neuroendocrinologv, 36: 165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tomlinson, B.E. and Corsellis, J.A.N., 1984, Ageing and the dementias, in: Hume-Adams, Corsellis, Duchen, Greenfield’s Neuropathology, 951–1025, Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  68. Tomlinson, B.E., Blessed, G. and Roth, M., 1970, Observations on the brains of demented old people, J. Neurol. Sci., 2: 205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vincent, S.R., McIntosh, C.H.S., Buchan, A.M.J. and Brown, J.C., 1985, Central somatostatin revealed with monoclonal antibodies, J. COMM Neurol., 238: 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Whitehouse, P.J., Price, D.L., Struble, R.G., Clark, A.W. and DeLong, M.R., 1982, Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: Loss of neurons in the central forebrain, Science, 215: 1237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilcock, G.K. and Esiri, M.M., 1982, Plaques, tangles and dementia: A quantitative study, J. Neurol. Sci., 56: 343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Victoria Chan-Palay
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurology ClinicUniversity HospitalZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations