Nutrition, Fluid Balance, and Physical Performance

  • Richard Cotter


Nutrition, including fluid balance and its effects on physical performance, is not a new concept created in response to the evolution of professional athletics in the twentieth century. Present-day media coverage of this field might lead one to believe that the relationship between nutrition and physical performance is a recent discovery of professional coaching staffs. In truth, professional sports has recently helped expand our knowledge in this area, but our basic knowledge in this field goes back to antiquity and is shrouded in early mythical and religious beliefs. This was followed by the study of nutrition and physical performance under conditions related to some of man’s great endeavors—war and industry. In a more recent stage of development, amateur athletics created the proper controlled environment for the study of nutrition and performance during physical activities of varying intensities and comparison of these results to those collected in military and industrial settings. These combined data bases form the foundation for our present understanding of this challenging field, thus allowing us to develop the present nutritional and fluid regimens used by coaches and participants in amateur, collegiate, and professional sports today.


Physical Activity Physical Performance Fluid Balance Muscle Glycogen Endurance Athlete 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mayer J, Bullen B: Nutrition and athletic performance. Physiol Rev 40: 369–397, 1960.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Christophe J, Mayer J: Effect of exercise on glucose uptake in rats and men. J Appl Physiol 13: 269–272, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Novich MN: Research in the physiology of exercise and sports. J Med Soc NJ 82: 295–299, 1985.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stefanson V: The diets of explorers. Military Med 95: 1–89, 1944.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnson RE, Kark RM: Environment and food intake in man. Science 106: 378–379, 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kraut HA, Muller AE: Calorie intake and industrial output. Science 104: 495–497, 1946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Passmore R, Damier VGA: Human energy expenditure. Physiol Rev 35: 801–840, 1955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shils ME: Food and nutrition relating to work, exercise and environmental stress, in Goodhart RS, Shils ME (eds): Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, ed 5. Philadelphia, Lea and Febiger, 1980, p 814.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Appenzeller O, Atkinson R: Nutrition for physical performance, in Appenzeller O, Atkinson R (eds): Sports Medicine, ed 2. Baltimore, Munch, Urban and Schwarzenberg, 1983, p 57.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brotherhood JR: Nutrition and sports performance. Sports Med 1: 350–389, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roberts BW: Nutrition and athletic performance. Nutr Int 2: 1–11, 1986.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Short SH, Short WR: Four-year study of university athletes’ dietary intake. J Am Dietetic Assoc 82: 632–645, 1983.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feno-Luzzi A, Venerando A: Aims and results of dietary surveys on athletes, in Parizkova J, Rogozkin VA (eds): Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1978, p 145.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kirsch KA, von Ameln H: Feeding patterns of endurance athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 47: 197–208, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith MP, Mendez J, Druckenmiller M, et al: Exercise intensity, dietary intake, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in young female competitive swimmers. Am J Clin Nutr 36: 251–255, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jacobs I, Westlin N, Karlsson J, et al: Muscle glycogen and diet in elite soccer players. Eur J Appl Physiol 48: 297–302, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    DeWign JF, Leusink J, Post GB, et al: Diet, body composition and physical condition of champion rowers during periods of training and out of training. Biblthca Nutr Dieta 27: 143–148, 1979.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steel JE: A nutritional study of Australian Olympic athletes. Med J Aust 2: 119–123, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Clement DB, Sawchuk LL: Iron status and sports performance. Sports Med 1: 65–74, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brotherhood JR: Aspects of nutrition in endurance sports. Aust J Sports Med 14: 8–11, 1982.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andersen KL, Masironi R, Rutenfranz J, et al: Grading the intensity of physical activity, in Andersen KL, Masironi R, Rutenfranz J, Seliger V in collaboration with Degre S, Trygg K, Orgim M: Habitual Physical Activity and Health, WHO Regional Publications European Series No. 6. Copenhagen, World Health Organization, 1978, pp 18–26.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Havel RJ, Pernow B, Jones NL: Uptake and release of free fatty acids and other metabolites in the legs of exercising men. J Appl Physiol 23: 90–99, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Felig P, Wahren J: Fuel homeostasis in exercise. N Engl J Med 293: 1078–1084, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Randle PJ: Molecular mechanisms regulating fuel selection in muscle, in Poortmans J, Niset G (eds): Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1981, pp 13–28.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    West JB: Best and Taylor’s Physiological Basis of Medical Practice. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1985, pp 805–817.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hultman E: Liver as a glucose supplying source during rest and exercise with special reference to diet, in Parizkova J, Rogozkin VA (eds): Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1978, pp 9–30.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Saltin B: Fluid, electrolyte, and energy losses and their replenishment in prolonged exercise, in Parizkova J, Rogozkin VA (eds): Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1978, pp 76–97.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gollnick PD: Free fatty acid turnover and the availability of substrates as a limiting factor in prolonged exercise. Ann NY Acad Sci 301: 64–71, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, et al: Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiol Scand 71: 140–150, 1967.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saltin B, Hermansen L: Glycogen stores and prolonged severe exercise, in Blix G (ed): Nutrition and Physical Activity. Symp Swed Nutr Found V. Uppsala, Almquist and Wiksell, 1967, pp 32–46.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Costill DL, Sherman WM, Essig DA: Metabolic responses and adaptations to endurance running, in Poortmans J, Niset G (eds): Biochemistry of Exercise IV-A. International Series of Sport Science, vol IIA. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1981, pp 33–45.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goodman MN, Ruderman NB: Influence of muscle use on amino acid metabolism. Exerc Sports Sci Rev 10: 1–26, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gontzea I, Sutzescu R, Dumitrache S: The influence of adaptation to physical effort on nitrogen balance in man. Nutr Rep Int 11: 231–236, 1975.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dohm GL, Hecker AL, Brown WE, et al: Adaptation of protein metabolism to endurance training. Biochem J 164: 705–708, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Millward DJ, Davies CTM, Halliday D, et al: Effect of exercise on protein metabolism in humans as explored with stable isotopes. Fed Proc 41: 2686–2691, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Haralambie G, Berg A: Serum urea and amino nitrogen changes with exercise duration. Eur J Appl Physiol 36: 39–48, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rasch PJ, Hamby JW, Bums FU: Protein dietary supplementation and physical performance. Med Sci Sports 1: 195–199, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Williams HM: Vitamins and mineral supplements to athletes: do they help? Clin Sports Med 3: 623–637, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shephard RJ: Physiology and Biochemistry of Exercise. New York, Praeger, 1982.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Consolazio CF: Nutrition and performance. Prog Food Nutr Sci 7 (1–2): 1–188, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dwyer T, Brotherhood JR: Long-term dietary considerations in physical training. Proc Nutr Soc Aust 6: 31–40, 1981.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zanecoskey A: Nutrition for athletes. Clin Podiatric Med Surg 3: 623–630, 1986.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Haralambie G: Changes in electrolytes and trace elements during long-lasting exercise, in Howald H, Poortmans J (eds): Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise. Basel, Birkhauser Verlag, 1975, pp 340–351.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hecker AL: Nutritional conditioning for athletic competition. Clin Sports Med 3: 567–582, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wilmore JH, Freund BJ: Nutritional enhancement of athletic performance. Curr Concepts Nutr 15: 67–97, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brotherhood JR: The nutritional stresses consequent to thermoregulation in athletes. Proc Nutr Soc Aust 6: 123–125, 1981.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Greenleaf JE, Castle BL: Exercise temperature regulation in man during hypohydration and hyperhydration. J Appl Physiol 30: 847–853, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Costill DL: Muscle water and electrolytes during acute and repeated bouts of dehydration, in Parizkova J, Rogozkin VA (eds): Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health. Baltimore, University Park Press, 1978, pp 98–116.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Leithead CS, Lind AR: Heat Stress and Heat Disorders. London, Cassell, 1964.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: Occupational Exposure to Hot Environments-Criteria for a Recommended Standard, Figure 8. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Washington, DC 1972.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Costill DL: Sweating: its composition and effects on body fluids. Ann NY Acad Sci 301: 160–174, 183–188, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Robinson S, Robinson AH: Chemical composition of sweat. Physiol Rev 34: 202–220, 1954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stromme SB, Stensvold IC, Meen HD, et al: Magnesium metabolism during prolonged heavy exercise, in Howald H, Poortmans J (eds): Metabolic Adaptation to Prolonged Physical Exercise. Basel, Berkhauser Verlag, 1975, pp 361–366.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Paulev P-E, Jordal R, Pedersen NS: Dermal excretion of iron in intensely training athletes. Clin Chim Acta 127: 19–27, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bergstrom J: Muscle electrolytes in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 14: 110, 1962.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bergstrom J, Hultman E: Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: an enhancing factor localized to the muscle cells in man. Nature 210: 309–310, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Costill DL, Miller JM: Nutrition for endurance sport: carbohydrate and fluid balance. Int J Sports Med 1: 2–14, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    American Dietetic Association: Nutrition and physical fitness. J Am Dietetic Assoc 76: 437–443, 1980.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Cotter
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Clintec Nutrition CompanyDeerfieldUSA
  2. 2.Baxter Healthcare CorporationDeerfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations