Interleukin-1 (IL-1) was originally described as a macrophage-derived low molecular weight (13–17 kd) polypeptide that acts as a comitogen with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavilin A (Con A) in cultures of murine thymocytes (Gery et al., 1972). Subsequent studies revealed that IL-1 was stimulatory for a broad range of T-cell-dependent in vitro immune responses including antibody synthesis (Koopman et al.,1978; Staruch and Wood, 1983), cytotoxic T cell activation (Farrar et al.,1980), and mitogen- and antigen-induced T cell proliferation (Gery et al.,1972; Mizel and Ben-Zvi, 1980; Mizel, 1982; Dinarello, 1984; Oppenheim et al.,1986). More recent studies indicate that IL-1 may also play an essential role in thymocyte maturation (DeLuca and Mizel, 1986). B cells, as well as T cells, have been characterized as IL-1 responsive. For example, IL-1 can induce the synthesis of kappa light chains and surface immunoglobulin expression in pre-B cells (Giri et al.,1984) and function as a comitogen in B cell proliferation (Howard et al.,1983). Within the last few years, it has become evident that the biologic activity of IL-1 is not restricted to lymphocytes. Indeed, this mediator can modify the growth and secretory activity of a large number of cell types, including fibroblasts, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, chondrocytes, natural killer cells, synovial cells, and osteoclasts (Dinarello, 1984; Oppenheim et al.,1986), which share a common involvement in immune or inflammatory responses. The overlapping responsiveness to IL-1 may provide one mechanism for the coordinated control of the diverse cell types that are involved in an immune or inflammatory response.
KeywordsFetal Thymus Murine Thymocyte Thymocyte Proliferation Nonlymphoid Cell Fetal Thymus Organ Culture
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Ben-Zvi, A., Mizel, S. B., and Oppenheim, J. J., 1981, Generation of human peripheral blood stable E-rosette-forming T cells by interleukin 1, Clin. Immunol. 19: 330–337.Google Scholar
- DeLuca, D., 1985, Ia-positive non-lymphoid cells and T cell development in murine fetal thymocyte organ cultures: Monoclonal anti-Ia antibodies inhibit the development of T cells, J. Immunol. 136: 430–439.Google Scholar
- Giri, J. G., Lomedico, P. L., and Mizel, S. B., 1985, Studies on the synthesis and secretion ofGoogle Scholar
- interleukin 1. I. A 33,000 molecular weight precursor for interleukin 1, J. Immunol. 134: 343–349.Google Scholar
- Gubler, U., Chua, A. O., Stem, A. S., Hellman, C. P., Vitek, M. P., Dechiara, T. M., Benjamin, W. R., Collier, K. J., Dukovich, M., Familletti, P. C., Fiedler-Nagy, C., Jenson, J. Kaffla, K. Killian, P. L., Stremlo, D., Wittreich, B. H., Woele, D., Mizel, S. B., and Lomedico, P. T., 1986, Recombinant human interleukin la: Purification and biological characterization, J. Immunol. 136: 2492–2497.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kaye, J., Gillis, S., Mizel, S. B., Shevach, E. M., Malek, T. R., Dinarello, C. A., Lachman, L. L., and Janeway, C. A., Jr., 1984, Growth of a cloned helper T cell line induced by a monoclonal antibody specific for the antigen receptor: Interleukin 1 is required for the expression of receptors for interleukin 2, J. Immunol. 133: 1339–1345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- March, C. J., Mosley, B., Larsen, A., Cerretti, D. P., Braedt, G., Price, V., Gillis, S., Henney, C. S., Kronheim, S. R., Grabstein, K., Conlon, P. J., Hopp, T. P., and Cos-mann, D., 1985, Cloning, sequence and expression of two distinct human interleukin-1 complementary DNA5, Nature 315: 641–646.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Matushima, K., Yodoi, J., Tagaya, Y., and Oppenheim, J. J., 1986, Down regulation of interleukin-1 (IL1) receptor expression by IL1 and fate of internalized 125í-labeled íL1 13 in a human large granular lymphocyte cell line, J. Immunol. 137: 3183–3188.Google Scholar
- Nagelherken, L. M., and van Breda Vriesman, P. J. C., 1986, Membrane-associated IL 1-like activity on rat dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 136: 2164–2170.Google Scholar
- Ramadori, G., Sipe, J. D., Dinarello,C. A., Mizel, S. B., and Colten, H. R., 1985, Pretranslational modulation of acute phase hepatic protein synthesis by murine recombinant interleukin 1 (IL-1) and purified human IL-1. J. Exp. Med. 162: 930–942.Google Scholar
- Stanton, T. H., Maynard, M., and Bomsztyk, K., 1986, Effect of interleukin-1 on intracellular concentration of sodium, calcium, and potassium in 702/3 cells, J. Biol. Chem. 261: 56995701.Google Scholar
- Suttles, J., Giri, J., and Mizel, S. B., 1987, Secretion of the murine interleukin 1 precursor. Evidence for a novel, processing independent secretory pathway in macrophages (submitted for publication).Google Scholar