Fluctuations in Systems Subject to External Forces
We consider a system initially at equilibrium. An external force, E, is switched on at t=0 such that F(t) = F (independent of time) for t≥0. At long times, the system either appears to come to equilibrium or to a steady-state; i.e. the macroscopic properties of the system are time-independent and, in equilibrium, there are no fluxes and, in the steady-state, there are time-independent macroscopic fluxes. For systems which appear to come to equilibrium, the fluctuations are qualitatively the same as in true equilibrium. However, in systems which appear to come to a steady-state, the fluctuations may be qualitatively different from those in equilibrium. A mode-coupling theory for these results will be presented and the qualitative difference between steady-state and equilibrium fluctuations described.
KeywordsSlow Variable Equilibrium Correlation Equilibrium Distribution Function Steady State System Grand Canonical Partition Function
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