Fluctuations in Systems Subject to External Forces

  • I. Oppenhein
Part of the Ettore Majorana International Science Series book series (EMISS, volume 46)


We consider a system initially at equilibrium. An external force, E, is switched on at t=0 such that F(t) = F (independent of time) for t≥0. At long times, the system either appears to come to equilibrium or to a steady-state; i.e. the macroscopic properties of the system are time-independent and, in equilibrium, there are no fluxes and, in the steady-state, there are time-independent macroscopic fluxes. For systems which appear to come to equilibrium, the fluctuations are qualitatively the same as in true equilibrium. However, in systems which appear to come to a steady-state, the fluctuations may be qualitatively different from those in equilibrium. A mode-coupling theory for these results will be presented and the qualitative difference between steady-state and equilibrium fluctuations described.


Slow Variable Equilibrium Correlation Equilibrium Distribution Function Steady State System Grand Canonical Partition Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    J. Machta and I. Oppenheim, Physica A 112: 361 (1982).MathSciNetADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Griffin, Can. J. Phys. 46: 2843 (1968).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Beysens, Y. Garrobos and G. Zalcer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45: 403 (1980).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Penney, H. Kiefte and M.J. Clouter, Bull. Can. Assoc. Phys. 39:888 (1983).Google Scholar
  5. G.H. Wegdam, N.M. Keulen, and J.C.F. Michielsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55: 630 (1985).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    I. L’Heureux, Thesis M.I.T. (1987).Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    D. Ronis and I. Procaccia, Phys. Rev. A 26:1812 (1982).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. T.R. Kirkpatrick, E.G.D. Cohen and J.R. Dorfman, Ibid. 995 (1982).Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    G. Satten and D. Ronis, Phys. Rev. A 27: 2577 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Oppenhein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations