Aqueous Solutions: Crystallization, Vitrification and Liquefaction

  • Douglas R. MacFarlane
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 147)


The fundamental physical problem presented by the idea of cryopreservation of organs at liquid N2 temperatures can be broken down into a number of related problems. Can the organ tolerate, or be made to tolerate, the formation of ice? Can the formation of ice be minimized or avoided completely? What ice phases, morphologies and particle sizes are least damaging? What cooling and warming procedures optimize these factors? These form the core of the questions which are addressed in the following series of chapters. Each of the authors tackles one or more of these questions from the perspective of different cryopreservation procedures and we begin here by reviewing the physical aspects of the various approaches that exist.


Cool Rate Warming Procedure Cryopreservation Procedure Total Surface Free Energy Control Cool Rate 
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  1. F. Franks. Water: A Comprehensive Treatise. Volume 7, Plenum Press, New York, 1982.Google Scholar
  2. G. M. Fahy, D. R. MacFarlane, C.A. Angell and H. T. Meryman. Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation. Cryobiology 21:407 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas R. MacFarlane
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

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