Aqueous Solutions: Crystallization, Vitrification and Liquefaction
The fundamental physical problem presented by the idea of cryopreservation of organs at liquid N2 temperatures can be broken down into a number of related problems. Can the organ tolerate, or be made to tolerate, the formation of ice? Can the formation of ice be minimized or avoided completely? What ice phases, morphologies and particle sizes are least damaging? What cooling and warming procedures optimize these factors? These form the core of the questions which are addressed in the following series of chapters. Each of the authors tackles one or more of these questions from the perspective of different cryopreservation procedures and we begin here by reviewing the physical aspects of the various approaches that exist.
KeywordsCool Rate Warming Procedure Cryopreservation Procedure Total Surface Free Energy Control Cool Rate
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