Biological Effects of Cryoprotectant Perfusion, Delivery and Removal to Nonfrozen Organs

  • Armand M. KarowJr.
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 147)


Cryoprotectants (CPA), by definition, are chemicals that enhance, improve or increase postthaw survival of frozen cells. All CPAs are highly soluble in water; many are derivatives of alcohols or sugars. There are two general CPA classes, those that are permeable and those that are impermeable to cells. The principal difference between the two classes is their molecular weights, the permeants being less than 100 daltons.


Propylene Glycol Subzero Temperature Rabbit Kidney Vehicle Solution Mammalian Kidney 
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© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Armand M. KarowJr.
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyMedical College of GeorgiaAugustaUSA

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