Freezing Patterns in Tissue by NMR Technology

  • Carlton F. Hazlewood
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 147)


In 1932, Chambers and Hale reported their observations of ice crystal formation in skeletal muscle (1). This work is one of the earliest reported studies of ice forms within living protoplasm. It was found that the crystals form as spicules which grow longitudinally with little lateral growth and no branching. These original observations of Chambers and Hale were confirmed and extended by Miller and Ling (2) in 1970 and their findings are presented in figure 1.


Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Free Induction Decay Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Signal Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlton F. Hazlewood
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Physiology and Molecular BiophysicsBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

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